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## Overview

### The term "Holocaust" and "Nuclear".

The English word "holocaust", derived from the Greek language's term "holokaustos" meaning "completely burnt", is commonly defined as "a great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire."

The English word "nuclear\nukes", derived from the Latin language's term "​nucleus" meaning "kernel", from nucula, little nut, diminutive of nux, nuc-, "nut". In this case it is relating to ​weapons, or the use of ​weapons, which use the ​power ​produced when the ​nucleus of an ​atom is ​divided or ​joined to another ​nucleus (nuclear weapon\nuke).

It literally means "incinerated\cremated nuts" in Latin and Greek!

### The term "TNT equivalent"

TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The term "a ton of TNT" is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms or one megagram) of TNT. The convention intends to compare the destructiveness of an event with that of conventional explosives, of which TNT is a typical example (although other conventional explosives such as dynamite contain more energy).

The "kiloton (of TNT)" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules.

The "megaton (of TNT)" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules.

The kiloton and megaton of TNT have traditionally been used to describe the energy output, and hence the destructive power, of a nuclear weapon. The TNT equivalent appears in various nuclear weapon control treaties, and has been used to characterize the energy released in such other highly destructive events as an asteroid impact.

The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ). An explosive yield of one terajoule is 0.239 kt of TNT. Because the accuracy of any measurement of the energy released by TNT has always been problematic, the conventional definition accepted since the dawn of the Atomic Age is that one kiloton of TNT is simply to be 1012 calories equivalent, which is only approximately equal to the energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

The yield-to-weight ratio is the amount of weapon yield compared to the mass of the weapon. The practical maximum yield-to-weight ratio for fusion weapons (thermonuclear weapons) has been estimated to six megatons of TNT per metric ton of bomb mass (25 TJ/kg). Yields of 5.2 megatons/ton and higher have been reported for large weapons constructed for single-warhead use in the early 1960s. Since this time, the smaller warheads needed to achieve the increased net damage efficiency (bomb damage/bomb weight) of multiple warhead systems, has resulted in decreases in the yield/weight ratio for single modern warheads.

The relative effectiveness factor, or R.E. factor, relates an explosive's demolition power to that of TNT, in units of the TNT equivalent/kg (TNTe/kg). The R.E. factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an explosive is equivalent; the greater the R.E., the more powerful the explosive.

This enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying blasting formulas developed specifically for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls for a charge of 1 kg of TNT, then based on octanitrocubane's R.E. factor of 2.38, it would take only 1.0/2.38 (or 0.42) kg of it to do the same job. Using PETN, engineers would need 1.0/1.66 (or 0.60) kg to obtain the same effects as 1 kg of TNT. With ANFO or ammonium nitrate, they would require 1.0/0.74 (or 1.35) kg or 1.0/0.42 (or 2.38) kg, respectively.

Nukes were to be measured in the much greater megaton and kiloton range due to their massive blasts.

Example: Mk-54 (Davy Crockett) – 10 or 20 tons (AKA: 0.010 kilotons or 0.020 kilotons) yield, Davy Crockett artillery warhead.
Example: Mk-54 (SADM) – approximate yield from 10 tons to 1 kiloton, Special Atomic Demolition Munition device.
Example: W48 was an American nuclear artillery shell – 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton).
Example: Pluton missile– 15 or 25 kilotons.
Example: Little Boy bomb– ~16 kilotons.
Example: Operation Buster test blast– 21 kilotons.
Example: 3x W58 warhead in the UGM-27 Polaris– 200 kilotons for each one.
Example: R-12 (SS-4 Sandal)- 2.3 megatons
Example: Ivy Mike test blast – 10.4 megatons.

### Atomic\nuclear war

"Nukes" or nuclear weapons are the name given to all radiological, fusion and fission weapons. War with these weapons is called atomic war and could lead to a nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon) like the ones used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The first fission ("atomic") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT (see Trinity (nuclear test)). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10,000,000 tons of TNT.

Technically speaking, Atomic war would be any war in which nuclear weapons are used, ranging from a single, small weapon (like a bunker buster or the ones dropped by the United States on Japan in World War II) or a ad-hock terrorist bomb and all the way up to a full-blown assault between nuclear powers using atomic arms and their opponents (including those without nukes).

### Who can launch them

They are launched by the use of the military's nuclear launch codes and the authority and authentication of the leader's, deputy leader's and/or defense minister's Nuclear briefcase (UK) Cheget (USSR), «mobile base» (France) or Nuclear football (USA).

### Wartime usage

It would be used in World War 3 if mass death and destruction was needed and may then lead to A nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse|a nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse. The first fission ("atomic") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT at the Trinity nuclear test. The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10,000,000 tons of TNT. The Hiroshima bomb was War with these weapons is called atomic war and could lead to a nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse. The Hiroshima bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT and the Davy Crockett Weapon System released the same amount of energy as approximately 20 tons of TNT and the MGM-52 Lance missile could release 1,000 to 100,000 tonnes of TNT equivalent of explosive energy.

### The resulting phenomena

A nuclear holocaust or nuclear apocalypse would be a possible complete or nearly complete annihilation of human life through the use of nuclear weapons. Under such a scenario, all or most of the Earth is made uninhabitable by nuclear warfare in future world wars after a mass exstange of nukes in the war!

### The energy equation

• Blast and the resulting air shockwave—40–50% of total energy.
• Thermal (heat)  radiation —30–50% of total energy.
• Ionizing (Gamma raysX-rays, and the higher ultraviolet) radiation—5% of total energy (more in a neutron bomb).
• Residual (Alpha and Beta radiation) radiation—5–10% of total energy with the mass of the explosion.
• ~1% Light, EMP, microwaves and radio waves.

## Defining the weapons them selves and how to use them

### The difference between the different types of nuclear weapons (nukes)

1. Atomic bomb\Atom bomb\A-bombs- An A-bomb is any form of nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon) like the ones used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The first fission ("atomic") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT (see Trinity (nuclear test)). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10,000,000 tons of TNT. Technically, a H-bomb is a form of A-bomb, but has got it's own name due to it's different chemistry and much larger yield pattern.
2. Cobalt bomb\Co-bombs- A cobalt bomb is a theoretical type of "salted bomb": a nuclear weapon designed to produce enhanced amounts of radioactive fallout, intended to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The concept of a cobalt bomb was originally described in a radio program by physicist Leó Szilárd on February 26, 1950. His intent was not to propose that such a weapon be built, but to show that nuclear weapon technology would soon reach the point where it could end human life on Earth, a doomsday device. Such "salted" weapons were requested by the U.S. Air Force and seriously investigated, but not deployed. In the 1964 edition of the DOD/AEC book The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, a new section titled radiological warfare clarified the "Doomsday device" issue. Samuel Glasstone, The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, 1962, Revised 1964, U.S. Dept of Defense and U.S. Dept of Energy, pp.464–5. This section was removed from later editions, but, according to Glasstone in 1978, not because it was inaccurate or because the weapons had changed.
3. Meson bomb\M-bomb- The meson bomb was a proposed nuclear weapon, whose function was based on the energy of mesons. The idea behind the bomb was rejected by most scientists, but during Cold War, American intelligence managed to trick Soviet Union into conducting research on this topic, which resulted in several years of wasted labor by one of the Soviet nuclear weapon research bureaus.
4. Radiological device\R-bomb\RRD\Radiological dispersion device\dirty bomb\D-bomb- A dirty bomb or radiological dispersal device is a theoretical radiological weapon that combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. A conventional explosive tied to some atomic waste, atomic fuel, a hospital radio-therapy unit, barrel of 'heavy water', a deactivated atomic warhead or a similar sort of thing. The blast scatters the radioactive part around a large location and in to the air with out a fissile atomic blast.
5. Enhanced Radiation Weapon\ERW\Neutron bomb\N-bombs- A neutron bomb, officially termed one type of Enhanced Radiation Weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon in which a burst of neutrons generated by a nuclear fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components. The neutron bomb was to be used as a tactical nuclear weapon intended for use against armored forces. Originally conceived by the U.S. military, their design goals were to stop massed Soviet armored divisions from overrunning allied nations without destroying the infrastructure of the allied nation. The weapon's radiation case, usually made from relatively thick uranium, lead or steel in a standard bomb, is, instead, made of as thin a material as possible, to facilitate the greatest escape of fusion-produced neutrons. The usual nuclear weapon yield—expressed as kilotons of TNT equivalent—is not a measure of a neutron weapon's destructive power. It refers only to the energy released (mostly heat and blast), and does not express the lethal. It would make many building materials in the city radioactive, such as zinc coated steel/galvanized steel for area denial purposes. :The pulse of neutron radiation from a 1kt bomb would cause immediate and permanent incapacitation to unprotected outdoor humans in the open out to 900 meters, with death occurring in one or two days. The median lethal dose (LD50) of 600 rads would extend to about 1350–1400 meters for those unprotected and outdoors, where approximately half of those exposed would die of radiation sickness after several weeks. However a human residing within, or simply shielded by, at least one of the aforementioned concrete buildings with walls and ceilings 30 cm (12 in) thick, or alternatively of damp soil 24 inches thick, would receive a neutron radiation exposure reduced by a factor of 10. Even near ground zero, basement sheltering or buildings with similar radiation shielding characteristics, would drastically reduce the radiation dose. Furthermore, the neutron absorption spectrum of air is disputed by some authorities and depends in part on absorption by hydrogen from water vapor. Thus, it might vary exponentially with humidity, making neutron bombs far more deadly in desert climates than in humid ones. Considerable controversy arose in the U.S. and Western Europe following a June 1977 Washington Post exposé describing U.S. government plans to purchase the bomb. The article focused on the fact that it was the first weapon specifically intended to kill humans with radiation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory director Harold Brown nd Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev both described the neutron bomb as a "capitalist bomb", because it was designed to destroy people while preserving property. Science fiction author Isaac Asimov also stated that "Such a neutron bomb or N-bomb seems desirable to those who worry about property and hold life cheap. By 1984, according to Mordechai Vanunu, Israel was mass-producing neutron bombs. America, France and the USSR had also deployed them at times.
6. Thermonuclear\T-bomb\Hydrogen bomb\H-bombs- A hydrogen bomb or H-bomb, weapon deriving a large portion of its energy from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes. In an atomic bomb, uranium or plutonium is split into lighter elements that together weigh less than the original atoms, the remainder of the mass appearing as energy. Unlike this fission bomb, the hydrogen bomb functions by the fusion, or joining together, of lighter elements into heavier elements. The end product again weighs less than its components, the difference once more appearing as energy. Because extremely high temperatures are required in order to initiate fusion reactions, the hydrogen bomb is also known as a thermonuclear bomb. A thermonuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon that uses the energy from a primary nuclear fission reaction to compress and ignite a secondary nuclear fusion reaction. The result is greatly increased explosive power when compared to single-stage fission weapons. It is colloquially referred to as a hydrogen bomb or H-bomb because it employs fusion of isotopes of hydrogen. The fission stage in such weapons is required to cause the fusion that occurs in thermonuclear weapons. The misleading term "hydrogen bomb" was already in wide public use before fission product fallout from the Castle Bravo test in 1954 revealed the extent to which the design relies on fission.
7. Helium bomb\He-bomb- The Helium bomb was proposed variant of the H-bomb. Hydrogen fusion is much more efficient than helium fusion, and thus is more desirable for a bomb. Helium-3 would theoretically make better a fusion bomb. 1 ton of helium-3 has the potential to produce 1.5 times more destructive power than the Tsar Bomba. Tsar Bomba had 50 megatons (50Mt) of yield. Considering it already takes an atomic-fission bomb to create the necessary conditions for large-scale hydrogen fusion, it would need something even more powerful to create the conditions for helium fusion. Technically, a H-bomb is a form of A-bomb, but has got it's own name due to it's different chemistry and much larger yield pattern.
11. Cost, bulk: $? per 100g CRT computer monitor front panel made from strontium and barium oxide-containing glass. This application used to consume most of the world's production of strontium. Strontium salts are added to fireworks in order to create red colors. Strontium carbonate and other strontium salts can be added to fireworks to give a deep red colour. This is the same effect that is used to identify strontium cations using the flame test. This application consumes about 5% of the world's production. Strontium-90 (90Sr) is also used in cancer therapy. Its beta emission and long half-life is ideal for superficial radiotherapy. Scientists are testing strontium ranelate to see if it can be taken by mouth to treat thinning bones (osteoporosis). Radioactive strontium-89 is given intravenously (by IV) for prostate cancer and advanced bone cancer. Strontium chloride hexahydrate is added to toothpaste to reduce sensitive teeth. Strontium chloride is sometimes used in toothpastes for sensitive teeth. One popular brand includes 10% total strontium chloride hexahydrate by weight. 90Sr isotope is present in radioactive fallout and has a half-life of 28.90 years. Strontium 91 has a half life 9.63 hours. Strontium 92 has a half life 2.66 hours. Strontium ltd strontiumltd.com/ is a company who's goal is to be "specialists in identifying and developing high growth potential small to medium sized companies. We focus and support these organisations to grow." It dose not use the metal or get involved in it despite of the company's name. #### Polonium-210 Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie. They include heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, and sources of neutrons and alpha particles. 1. Symbol: Po 2. Electron configuration: [Xe] 6s24f145d106p4 3. Atomic number: 84 4. Discovered: 1898 5. Atomic mass: 209 u 6. Melting point: 253.8 °C 7. Discoverers: Pierre Curie, Marie Curie 8. Abundance earth’s crust: Of the order of 1 part per quadrillion. 9. Abundance solar system: negligible 10. 2015 cost, pure: ? per 100g 11. 2015 cost, bulk: ? per 100g Polonium-210 is a rare radioactive metal discovered by Marie Curie in the late 19th century. It has a half-life of 138 days (about 4.5 months), decaying down to lead. During its radioactive decay, polonium-210 emits alpha particles. Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive element with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. The heavy metal is also, like nearly all heavy metals, very toxic and was used in the poisoning of the Russia defector, Alexander Litvinenko. #### Plutonium-239 1. Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. 1. Symbol: Pu 2. Atomic number: 94 3. Electron configuration: [Rn] 5f67s2 4. Atomic mass: 244 u 5. Discovered: 1940 6. Melting point: 639.4 °C 7. Discoverers: Joseph W. Kennedy, Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, Arthur Wahl 8. Abundance earth’s crust: negligible 9. Abundance solar system: unknown 10. 2015 Cost, pure:$4000 per gram
11. 2015 Cost, bulk: per 100g

Early pacemaker batteries also used tiny amounts of plutonium-238.

Plutonium-239 emits Alpha radiation and has a half life of 24,000 years. That is for the time from now to the middle of the Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) era. As a heavy metal, plutonium is also toxic.

#### Caesium-137

Caesium or cesium is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Handling it makes it runny and it reacts heavly in water with large amounts of it explodeing in water.

1. Symbol: Cs
2. Melting point: 28.44 °C
3. Boiling point: 670.8 °C
4. Electron configuration: [Xe] 6s1
5. Atomic number: 55
6. Discovered: 1860
7. Descovered by: Robert Bunsen and physicist Gustav Kirchhoff
8. Atomic mass: 132.90545 u ± 2 × 10^-7 u
9. Abundance earth’s crust: 3 parts per million by weight, 0.5 parts per million by moles
10. Abundance solar system: 8 parts per billion by weight, 70 parts per trillion by moles
11. 2015 cost, pure: $1100 per 100g 12. Cost, bulk:$ per 100g

Since the 1990s, the largest application of the element has been as caesium formate for drilling fluids. It has a range of applications in the production of electricity, in electronics, and in chemistry. The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in medical applications, industrial gauges, and hydrology. Although the element is only mildly toxic, it is a hazardous material as a very reactive metal and its radioisotopes present a high health risk if released into the environment.

In 1967, based on Einstein defining the speed of light as the most constant dimension in the universe, the International System of Units isolated two specific wave counts from an emission spectrum of caesium-133 to co-define the second and the meter. Since then, caesium has been widely used in highly accurate atomic clocks. Caesium compounds are also used as part of drilling fluids.

Cesium readily combines with oxygen and is used as a getter, a material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubes and photoelectric cells. This was a small-scale applications of the metal, since not much was ever used in any 1 valve. Cesium is also used in atomic clocks, in modern photoelectric cells and as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds.

Cesium - WebGL Virtual Globe and Map Engine was named after the metal, not made from it. Their mission is "to create the leading web-based globe and map for visualizing dynamic data".Cesium Developer Networkcesiumjs.org. Cesium is an open source geospatial visualization JavaScript library https://cesium.agi.com/.

#### Cobalt-60

Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt in the Earth's crust is found only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron.

1. Symbol: Co
2. Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d74s2
3. Atomic mass: 58.933195 u ± 0.000005 u
4. Melting point: 1,495 °C
5. Atomic number: 27
6. Discovered: 1735
7. Discoverer: Georg Brandt
8. Abundance earth’s crust: 25 parts per million by weight, 8 parts per million by moles
9. Abundance solar system: 4 parts per million by weight, 0.7 parts per million by moles
10. 2015 cost, pure: $21 per 100g 11. 2015 cost, bulk:$4.40 per 100g

Cobalt is primarily used as the metal, in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. It is also used in phone and electric car batteries. Its compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate (CoAl2O4, cobalt blue) give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high energy gamma rays. Cobalt-60, 60Co, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamins, the most common example of which is vitamin B12. As such it is an essential trace dietary mineral for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is also an active nutrient for bacteria, algae and fungi. It is toxic in very small amounts. names

• Strangely, cobalt has been used for several corporate names-
• Cobalt Light Systems https://www.cobaltlight.com/
• Developing innovative products & technologies for non-invasive, through barrier chemical analysis in security, pharmaceutical & research applications.
• Insight100 & Insight100M - LEDs bottle scanners https://www.cobaltlight.com/products/insight100series/
• The original bottle scanners from Cobalt, Insight100™ and Insight100M™ systems are widely deployed at EU airports, including 8 of the top 10 hubs.
• Cobalt Telephone Technologies for transactional and business use. www.ctt.co.uk/
• Cobalt Telephone Technologies builds innovative bespoke self-service environments for payments and transactions via smartphone, mobile and fixed phones.
• Cobalt health http://www.cobalthealth.co.uk/
• Information on medical services provided the by Cobalt Appeal Fund charity, including MRI, PET-CT and Breast scanning and Cancer Prevention services.
• Playcobalt http://playcobalt.com/
• Agame by Oxeye Game Studio in collaboration with Mojang and music by Anosou.

#### Uranium-235

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons.

1. Symbol: U
2. Atomic number: 92
3. Atomic mass: 238.02891 u ± 0.00003 u
4. Discovered: 1789
5. Electron configuration: [Rn] 5f36d17s2
6. Melting point: 1,132 °C
7. Discoverer: Martin Heinrich Klaproth
8. Abundance earth’s crust: 2.7 parts per million by weight, 0.25 parts per million by moles
9. Abundance solar system: 1 part per billion by weight, 4 parts per trillion by moles
10. 2015 cost, pure: $? per 100g 11. 2015 cost, bulk:$9 per 100g

Uranium is a very heavy metal which can be used as an abundant source of concentrated energy. The isotope U-235 is important because under certain conditions it can readily be split, yielding a lot of energy.

Commercial nuclear power plants use fuel that is typically enriched to around 3% uranium-235. Uranium metal is used for X-ray targets in the making of high-energy X-rays. Before (and, occasionally, after) the discovery of radioactivity, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes, such as uranium glass and in Fiestaware. U-238 can be converted into fissionable plutonium in breeder reactors. Depleted uranium (238U) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating.

Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium. Unlike the predominant isotope uranium-238, it is fissile, i.e., it can sustain a fission chain reaction. It is the only fissile isotope that is a primordial nuclide or found in significant quantity in nature.

It has a half-life of 703.8 million years (roughly 3 times bigger than the time from the first Dinosaurs to today). It was discovered in 1935 by Arthur Jeffrey Dempster. Its (fission) nuclear cross section for slow thermal neutrons is about 584.994 barns. For fast neutrons it is on the order of 1 barn Most but not all neutron absorptions result in fission; a minority result in neutron capture forming uranium-236.

Uranium-238 is the most prevalent isotope in uranium ore, has a half-life of about 4.5 billion years; that is, half the atoms in any sample will decay in that amount of time.

Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle. It decays to ‎229Th and has a half life of ‎160,000 years.

#### Thorium-232

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only two significantly radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as a primordial element.

1. Symbol: Th
2. Atomic number: 90
3. Electron configuration: [Rn] 6d27s2
4. Atomic mass: 232.03806 u ± 0.00002 u
5. Discovered: 1828
6. Descoverd by: Jöns Jakob Berzelius
7. Melting point: 1,755 °C
8. Boiling point: 4,787 °C
9. Abundance earth’s crust: 6 parts per million by weight, 0.5 parts per million by moles
10. Abundance solar system: 0.3 parts per billion by weight, 2 parts per trillion by moles
11. Cost, pure: ?$per 100g 12. Cost, bulk: ?$ per 100g

Thorium-232, half life 14 Billion years, which is about ~3 times longer than the planet Earth has existed for and about twice the time the Universe has existed for.

Thorium was once commonly used as the light source in gas mantles and as an alloying material, but these applications have declined due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still widely used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes (at a rate of 1%-2% mix with tungsten). It remains popular as a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation; thorium and uranium are the only significantly radioactive elements with major commercial applications that do not rely on their radioactivity. Thorium is predicted to be able to replace uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, but only a few proto-type thorium reactors have yet been completed.

Thorium is a toxic heavy metal.

#### Tritium (symbol T or 3H, also known as hydrogen-3)

Tritium (/ˈtrɪtiəm/ or /ˈtrɪʃiəm/; symbol T or 3H, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of protium (by far the most abundant hydrogen isotope) contains one proton and no neutrons. Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays. The name of this isotope is formed from the Greek word τρίτος (trítos) meaning "third". The normal Hydrogen isotope is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table.

Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays. The name of this isotope is formed from the Greek word τρίτος (trítos) meaning "third".

Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence. As based tritium illumination requires no electrical energy, it found wide use in applications such as emergency exit signs and illumination of wristwatches. More recently, many applications using radioactive materials have been replaced with photoluminescent materials.

The low energy of tritium's radiation makes it difficult to detect tritium-labeled compounds except by using liquid scintillation counting.

• Tritium data
1. Symbol triton,3H
2. Neutrons 2
3. Protons 1
4. Natural abundance trace
5. Half-life 12.32 years
6. Decay products 3He
7. Isotope mass 3.0160492 u
8. Spin 1⁄2
9. Excess energy 14,949.794± 0.001 keV
10. Binding energy 8,481.821± 0.004 keV
11. Decay mode Decay energy
12. Beta emission 0.018590 MeV

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons.

The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most non-metallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as in the form of water or organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid–base reactions as many acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion) when it is known as a hydride, or as a positively charged (i.e., cation) species denoted by the symbol H+. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex species than that would suggest. As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.

• Hydrogen data
1. Symbol: H
2. Atomic mass: 1.008 u ± 0.00001 u
3. Atomic number: 1
4. Melting point: -259.2 °C
5. Boiling point: -252.9 °C
6. Discovered: 1766
7. Discovery: Henry Cavendish
8. Electron configuration: 1s1, per shell: 1
9. Abundance earth’s crust: 1400 parts per million by weight (0.14%), 2.9% by moles
10. Abundance solar system: 75% by weight, 93% by moles
11. Cost, pure: $12 per 100g 12. Cost, bulk:$? per 100g

According to the U.S. EPA, "a recently documented source of tritium in the environment is [self-illuminating] exit signs that have been illegally disposed of in municipal landfills. Water, which seeps through the landfill, is contaminated with tritium from broken signs and can pass into water ways, carrying the tritium with it."

Tritium is a classic of atomic fall out with a half life of 12.32 years, but since it is a gas it will blow away and disperses in to the air rather than fall out of the sky. Tritium has leaked from 48 of 65 nuclear sites in the US. In one case, leaking water contained 7.5 microcuries (0.28 MBq) of tritium per litre, which is 375 times the EPA limit for drinking water.

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission states that in normal operation in 2003, 56 pressurized water reactors released 40,600 curies (1.50 PBq) of tritium (maximum: 2,080; minimum: 0.1; average: 725) and 24 boiling water reactors released 665 curies (24.6 TBq) (maximum: 174; minimum: 0; average: 27.7), in liquid effluents.

The high levels of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that took place prior to the enactment of the Partial Test Ban Treaty proved to be unexpectedly useful to oceanographers. The high levels of tritium oxide introduced into upper layers of the oceans have been used in the years since then to measure the rate of mixing of the upper layers of the oceans with their lower levels.

#### Krypton-85

Krypton is a gaseous chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

Krypton has an important role in production and usage of the krypton fluoride laser. The laser has been important in the nuclear fusion energy research community in confinement experiments. The laser has high beam uniformity, short wavelength, and the ability to modify the spot size to track an imploding pellet.

1. Symbol: Kr
2. Boiling point: -153.2 °C
3. Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d104s24p6
4. Melting point: -157.4 °C
5. Atomic number: 36
6. Atomic mass: 83.798 u
7. Discvoered in: 1898
8. Discovered by: Morris Travers and William Ramsay
9. Abundance earth’s crust: 100 parts per trillion by #weight, 30 parts per trillion by moles
10. Abundance solar system: parts per million by weight, parts per million by moles
11. Cost, pure: $33 per 100g 12. Cost, bulk:$ per 100g

Naturally occurring krypton is made of six stable isotopes. In addition, about thirty unstable isotopes and isomers are known. 81Kr, the product of atmospheric reactions, is produced with the other naturally occurring isotopes of krypton. Being radioactive, it has a half-life of 230,000 years. Krypton is highly volatile when it is near surface waters, but 81Kr has been used for dating old (50,000–800,000 years) groundwater.

85Kr is an inert radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 10.76 years. It is produced by the fission of uranium and plutonium, such as in nuclear bomb testing and nuclear reactors. 85Kr is released during the reprocessing of fuel rods from nuclear reactors. Concentrations at the North Pole are 30% higher than at the South Pole due to convective mixing.

It is a classic element of atomic fall out with a half life of ‎10.756 years, but since it is a gas it will blow away and disperses in to the air rather than fall out of the sky.

#### Iodine-131

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of iodine vapor.

• Symbol: I.
• Melting point: 113.7 °C.
• Boiling point: 184.3 °C.
• Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d105s25p5.
• Atomic mass: 126.90447 u.
• Atomic number: 53.
• Discovery by: Bernard Courtois
• Date of discovery: 1811.
• Abundance earth’s crust: 450 parts per billion by weight, 73 parts per billion by moles
• Abundance solar system: parts per billion by weight, parts per billion by moles
• Cost, pure: $8.3 per 100g • Cost, bulk: ?$ per 100g

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers. Iodine's relatively high atomic number, low toxicity, and ease of attachment to organic compounds have made it a part of many X-ray contrast materials in modern medicine. Iodine has only one stable isotope. Iodine radioisotopes, such as 131I, are also used in medical applications.

Iodine-131, is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley. It has a radioactive decay half-life of about eight days.

Radioactive Iodine I-131 (also called Radioiodine I-131) therapy is a treatment for an overactive thyroid, a condition called hyperthyroidism.

It is a classic element of atomic fall out with a half life of 8.0197 days.

#### Zirconium 97

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name of zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium.

Zirconium is a lustrous, greyish-white, soft, ductile and malleable metal which is solid at room temperature, though it becomes hard and brittle at lower purities. In powder form, zirconium is highly flammable, but the solid form is far less prone to ignition. Zirconium is highly resistant to corrosion by alkalis, acids, salt water and other agents. However, it will dissolve in hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, especially when fluorine is present. Alloys with zinc become magnetic below 35 K.

• Symbol: Zr
• Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d25s2
• Discovered: 1789
• Atomic number: 40
• Atomic mass: 91.224 u ± 0.002 u
• Melting point 2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
• Boiling point 4650 K ​(4377 °C, ​7911 °F)
• Discoverer: Martin Heinrich Klaproth
• Abundance earth’s crust: 165 parts per million by weight, 38 parts per million by moles
• Abundance solar system: 40 parts per billion by weight, 0.5 parts per billion by moles
• Cost, pure: $157 per 100g • Cost, bulk:$16 per 100g

Zirconium has a concentration of about 130 mg/kg within the Earth's crust and about 0.026 μg/L in sea water. It is not found in nature as a native metal, reflecting its intrinsic instability with respect to water. The principal commercial source of zirconium is zircon (ZrSiO4), a silicate mineral, which is found primarily in Australia, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa and the United States, as well as in smaller deposits around the world. As of 2013, two-thirds of zircon mining occurs in Australia and South Africa. Zircon resources exceed 60 million tonnes worldwide and annual worldwide zirconium production is approximately 900,000 tonnes. Zirconium also occurs in more than 140 other minerals, including the commercially useful ores baddeleyite and kosnarite.

Zr is relatively abundant in S-type stars, and it has been detected in the sun and in meteorites. Lunar rock samples brought back from several Apollo program missions to the moon have a quite high zirconium oxide content relative to terrestrial rocks.

It is a classic element of atomic fall out with a half life of 16.744 hours.

Zirconium 95 has a half life of 64.02 days.

The British Zircon signals intelligence satellite was named after the mineral Zirconium is extracted from, not made out of the mineral it's self.

#### Antimony 131

Antimony 131 has a half-life of 23.03 minuets.

#### Molybdenum 99

Molybdenum 99 has a half-life of 2.7489 days.

#### Ruthenium 106

Ruthenium 106 (106Ru) has a half-life of 373.59 days.

#### Lanthanum 141

lanthanum 141 has a half-life of 3.92 hours.

#### Tellurium 132

Tellurium 132 has a half-life of 3.204.

Tellurium 134 has a half-life of 41.8.

#### Barium 140

Barium 140 has a half-life of 12.752 days.

#### Cerium 137

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres.

1. Symbol: Ce
2. Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f15d16s2
3. Discovered: 1803
4. Atomic number: 58
5. Atomic mass: 140.116 u ± 0.001 u
6. Boiling point: 3,443 °C
7. Melting point: 795 °C
8. Discovery: Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger (1803)
9. Abundance earth’s crust: 60 parts per million by weight, 8.9 parts per million by moles
10. Abundance solar system: 4 parts per billion by weight, 30 parts per trillion by moles
11. Cost, pure: $380 per 100g 12. Cost, bulk:$1.20 per 100g

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres (itself named after the Roman goddess of agriculture). Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth elements, making up about 0.0046% of the Earth's crust by weight. It is found in a number of minerals, the most important being monazite and bastnäsite. Commercial applications of cerium are numerous. They include catalysts, additives to fuel to reduce emissions and to glass and enamels to change their color. Cerium oxide is an important component of glass polishing powders and phosphors used in screens and fluorescent lamps. It is also used in the "flint" (actually ferrocerium) of lighters.

Cerium was named for the asteroid Ceres, which was discovered in 1801 and named after a Roman god of that name.

It is the most abundant of the rare earth metals and is found in minerals including allanite, monazite, cerite, and bastnaesite. There are large deposits found in India, Brazil and the USA, thus giving them much industrial/political leverage on the world. Monazite deposits are located in Australia, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and the United States. Norway and Sweden used to be minor and historic sources.

Mischmetal (English: Mixed-metal) is an alloy of about 50% cerium, 25% lanthanum, 15% neodymium and 10%praseodymium, plus trace amounts of other rare-earth metals and iron. It is used as a deoxidizer in various alloys and vacuum tubes. By alloying it in to magnesium, it contributes to both high strength and creep resistance.

Cerium 137 has a half-life of 9 days.

Cerium 144 has a half-life of 284.91 days.

Strangely www.ceriumoptical.com uses the name, but dose not sell the metal since it's an optics firm. As they say "Cerium was founded in 1971, first as a distributor, then as a manufacturer of high-grade optical products." http://www.ceriumoptical.com/ and http://www.ceriumoptical.com/group.aspx

#### An aluminium greenhouse frame-come aluminium 26 (26Al)?

1. Symbol: Al
2. Melting point: 660.3 °C
3. Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s23p1
4. Atomic mass: 26.981539 u ± 8 × 10^-7 u
5. Boiling point: 2,519 °C
6. Atomic number: 13
7. Discovered: 1825
8. Discovered by: Hans Christian Ørsted
9. Abundance earth’s crust: 8.23 % by weight, 6.32 % by moles
10. Abundance solar system: 56 ppm by weight, 2.7 ppm by moles
11. Cost, pure: $15.72 per 100g 12. Cost, bulk:$0.20 per 100g

Some other things like water and some metals will also become radioactive due to the initial blast ionizing radiation. I chose an aluminium greenhouse frame for an example.

It is used in an extensive range of products from drinks cans, window frames, cooking pans, pace satellites, greenhouse frames, boats and aircraft. A Boeing 747-400 contains 147,000 pounds (66,150 kg) of high-strength aluminum. Only iron is used more widely than aluminum. It has no taste or smell. Aluminium is also slightly toxic which may make cuts and wounds with freshly polished and cut aluminium may cause a festering type allergic reason after a few days if it is not cleaned out. Heavy\continued ingestion of it may cause alzheimer’s disease.

Aluminium 26 has a half-life 720,000 years. That is for the time from now to when the people who lived near the Zhoukoudian region of Beijing master the skill of using fire in the early Paleolithic Period (the early stone-age).

### Fall out shelters and atomic\nuclear bunkers

Government would have limped on from places like Kelvedon Hatch Secret Nuclear Bunker and RAF Hack Green. Valuable members of the public, the armed forces and some critical industries would also be protected to a degree, but most would have perished!

No doubt some places would survive and in time form small principality and city states like this S.E. Polish one, The Republic of Mount Tarnica, which I made on another wiki.

## Other known issues

### Earthquakes ans seismology

All very large explosions, including nukes, make a small earth tremor; but if a larger nuke could set of a near by major fault-line. This is both banned by the UN and denounced by all governments.

### The ionosphere\Van Allen Belt

The day before Telstar 1 launched, a U.S. high-altitude nuclear bomb (called the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test) had energized the Earth's Van Allen Belt where Telstar 1 went into orbit. This vast increase in a partly artificial radiation belts, combined with subsequent high-altitude blasts, including a Soviet test in October, overwhelmed Telstar's fragile transistors and shorted some out. It went out of service in November 1962, after handling over 400 telephone, telegraph, facsimile and television transmissions. Some electrical systems such as street lights, phones and microwave relay stations also failed in Hawaii and New Zealand because of it!

The Soviet's Tsar Bomba bast on October 30, 1961, also caused a 1 hour local radio jamming effect due to the initial ionised radiation output.

### Tidal-waves\tsunamis and toxic seas

The USA, S. Africa, UK, NZ, Mouist China and the USSR had toyed with the idea of a Tsunami bomb in the mid 1940s and again in the early 1950s, because it was theoretically possible to Tsunami and tide waves with the under water shock-wave caused by a exploding nuke. Only relitvly minor ones have occurred on tests so far.

The sea around the detonation site would also become temporarily radioactive until the contaminated water had been swept away by the ocean currents.

## The Dead Hand System

The Dead Hand (or "Perimeter") system built by the Soviet Union (circa mid 1970s) during the Cold War has been called a "doomsday machine" due to its fail-deadly design and nuclear capabilities (launching all missiles randomly across the world outside of USSR and it's allies, thus de facto bringing about even there own destruction (sick, or what)! Gorbachove hated it, Yelstin closed it down, but Putin has rengaged it according to Western media reports. Nikita Khrushchev reportedly did not agree with such a response when the theory emerged in the late 1950's since he thought it was a genocidal idea that would kill innocence neutrals and any commies who the West had not managed to conquer!

## Project Pluto

Project Pluto (The Flying Crowbar missile) was the insane doomsday weapon America almost built. It was a Cold War SLAM missile. SLAM stands for- Supersonic Low Altitude Missile, that means that this giant, nuclear-powered beast would be screaming around at low rooftop/tree top hight, spewing poisonose radiation as it went to the place it was to blow up with it's nuke (sick, or what)!

## Doomsday device

A doomsday device is a hypothetical construction first considered in the mid 1950's — usually a weapon, or collection of weapons — which could destroy all life on a planet, particularly the Earth, or destroy the planet itself, bringing "doomsday", a term used for the end of planet Earth. Most hypothetical constructions rely on the fact that hydrogen bombs can be made arbitrarily large assuming there are no concerns about delivering them to a target (see Teller–Ulam design) or that they can be "salted" with materials designed to create long-lasting and hazardous fallout (e.g., a cobalt-50 or -60 type bomb. Sick, or what!).

A salted bomb should not be confused with a dirty bomb, which is an ordinary chemical explosive bomb containing radioactive material which is spread over the area when the bomb explodes. A salted bomb is able by desinge to contaminate a much larger area than a dirty bomb.

For many, the scheme epitomized the extremes of the suicidal logic behind the strategy of mutual assured destruction; the idea was famously parodied in the Stanley Kubrick film from 1964, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb.

Brezhnev made it in the 1970's, Yeltsin closed it down, but Putin has engaged it according to Western media reports. Nikita Khrushchev reportedly did not agree with such a device or devices when the theory emerged in the late 1950's since he thought it was a genocidal idea that would kill innocence neutrals and any commies who the West had not managed to conquer! Boris Yeltsin also hated it, according to western intelligence and media sources. Both Ike and JFK also thought such weapons were inhuman and un-American in it's nature.

### Salted bombs

A salted bomb should not be confused with a dirty bomb, which is an ordinary chemical explosive bomb containing radioactive material which is spread over the area when the bomb explodes. A salted bomb is able by desinge to contaminate a much larger area than a dirty bomb.

A salted bomb is a nuclear weapon designed to function as a radiological weapon, producing enhanced quantities of radioactive fallout, rendering a large area uninhabitable. The term is derived both from the means of their manufacture, which involves the incorporation of additional elements to a standard atomic weapon, and from the expression "to salt the earth", meaning to render an area uninhabitable for generations. It was coined in ancient times since Roma and Greece put salt in the ground of attacked nations to ruin it. The idea originated with Hungarian-American physicist Leo Szilard, in February 1950. His intent was not to propose that such a weapon be built, but to show that nuclear weapon technology would soon reach the point where it could end human life on Earth. No salted bomb has ever been tested (atmospherically for most effect), and as far as is publicly known none have ever been built.

### Cobalt bomb

Such "salted" weapons, which use cobalt, were requested by the U.S. Air Force and seriously investigated, but not deployed. In the 1964 edition of the DOD/AEC book The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, a new section titled radiological warfare clarified the "Doomsday device" issue.

## Shelters

### Blast shelters

A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. It differs from a fallout shelter, in that its main purpose is to protect from shock waves and overpressure, instead of from radioactive precipitation, as a fallout shelter does. It is also possible for a shelter to protect from both blasts and fallout.

Blast shelters are a vital form of protection from nuclear attack and are employed in civil defense. There are above-ground, below-ground, dedicated, dual-purpose, and potential blast shelters. Dedicated blast shelters are built specifically for the purpose of blast protection and thus vary in ways from air-aid shelters, radiation shelters, dugouts, foxholes, vaults, Anderson shelters, Morrison shelters, safes, basements, privately improvised bomb shelters, Safe rooms, mine bed\quarry bottom improvised shelters and bunkers. Dual-purpose blast shelters are existing structures with blast-protective properties that have been modified to accommodate people seeking protection from blasts. Potential blast shelters are existing structures or geological features exhibiting blast-protective properties that have potential to be used for protection from blasts.

Blast shelters deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. While frame buildings collapse from as little as 3 psi (20 kPa) of overpressure, blast shelters are regularly constructed to survive several hundred psi. This substantially decreases the likelihood that a bomb can harm the structure.

The basic plan is to provide a structure that is very strong in compression. The actual strength specification must be done individually, based on the nature and probability of the threat. A typical specification for heavy civil defence shelter in Europe during the Cold war was an overhead explosion of a 500 kiloton weapon at the height of 500 meters. Such a weapon would be used to attack soft targets (factories, administrative centres, communications) in the area.

Only the most heavy bedrock-shelters would stand a chance of surviving. However, in the countryside or in a suburb, the likely distance to the explosion is much larger, as it is improbable that anyone would waste an expensive nuclear device on such targets. The most common purpose-built structure is a steel-reinforced concrete vault or arch buried or located in the basement of a house.

Blast resistant doors protect people and property from explosions and shrapnel. One type is four inches of concrete that resists structural fires, cutting torches, fires, withstand a 50 PSI (3 bar) blast load in a seated condition, 14.5 PSI (1 bar) rebound load in a unseated condition and multiple hits with a 7.62 NATO round with no penetration.

## The blast comparison list!

### The blast power per lb comparison list!

• Bang goes the tonnage!
A list of 25 types of explosive.
Explosive. Nationality. Era. % stronger/weaker than TNT. TNT equivalent.
Gunpowder Chinese Medieval 0.45%
Ammonia fertilizer Various WW1
Torvex American Cold War 0.80%
TNT German American Civil War
Amatol British WW1 110%
Ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) American Cold War
Semtex Czechoslovak Cold War
C-4 British Cold War
Torpex British WW2 150%
Cycotol
RDX
PBX
U-235 A-bomb American WW2 +11,428.5714%
Plutonium A-bomb American WW2 +1,500,000%
IMX-101 American
Nitroglycerin (NG)
Dynamite
Gelignite
Picric acid British and French
Pure EGDN Belgian
Ammonite British

### The bomb blast comparison list!

• Bombs away!
A list of 27 bombs.
Bomb. Nationality. Era. Warhead. TNT equivalent.
The Mk 2 "Pine apple" grenade. American WW1. The explosive charge was made of 2 oz of TNT or EC blank fire powder. 2 oz
Soviet F1 "limonka" hand grenade. Soviet WW2 60 g of Trinitrotoluene (TNT). 2.12 oz
POMZ, POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M stake mine- Yugoslavian Cold War 75 g rod of cast TNT 2.65 oz
7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 neuer Art (7.7 cm FK 96 n.A.) Feldgranate 96: a 6.8 kilogram (15 lb) high-explosive shell . German Imperial WW1 0.19 kg (0.45 lbs) of TNT. 0.45 lb (6.70 oz).
M18 Claymore mine Amerian Cold War 680 g (24 oz) of C-4. 32 oz (2 lb)
MON-50 mine Soviet Cold War 700g of RDX (PVV-5A) 32.92 oz
RP-3 (Rocket Projectile- 3 inch) British WW2 12 lb (5.4 kg) to 60 lb (27 kg) of TNT or TNT/RDX 12 lb to 60 lb (TNT version)
A full RPE “Zarya” 6ZhV corporate polypropylene ammonite powder transportation bag. Ukranian New World Order. 40 kg of ammonite powder. 19.98 lb
M112 demolition charge American. New World Order 25 lb of C-4 33.33 lb
18 inch Mark XVII torpedo British WW2 600 lb (270 kg) Torpex 900 lb
Fritz X missile Nazi German WW2 320 kg (705 lb) of amatol 775.5 lb
1980's IRA 'spectacular' bomb The IRA Cold War ~1.481 tons of Semtex ~2 tons
Timothy McVeigh's Oklahoma City bombing device. American far right New World Order Just over 4,800 pounds (2,200 kg) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, nitromethane, and diesel fuel combined as ad mixture. Just over 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of TNT.
ASM-A-1 Tarzon bomb American WW2 5,200 lb (2,400 kg) of Torpex D1 3.9 tons
Talboy bomb Britsh WW2 5,200 lb (2,400 kg) of Torpex D1 3.9 tons
Grand slam bomb British WW2 4,144 kg (9,136 lb) of Torpex D1 6.5 tons
Mk-54 (Davy Crockett) infantry rocket launcher American Cold War Atomic warhead 10 or 20 tons (AKA: 0.010 kilotons or 0.020 kilotons)
GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) American New World Order 8,500 kg (18,700 lb) of H6 11 tons
Mk-54 Special Atomic Demolition Munition device (SADM). American Cold War Atomic warhead 10 tons to 1 kiloton
W48 nuclear artillery shell American Cold War Atomic warhead 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton).
Pluton missile French Cold War Atomic warhead 15 or 25 kilotons.
Little Boy bomb American WW2 U-235 atomic warhead ~15-16 kilotons.
Fat Man American WW2 Plutonium atomic warhead ~21 kilotons.
Operation Buster test blast American Cold War Atomic warhead 21 kilotons
UGM-27 Polaris missile American Cold War 3 atomic warheads 200 kilotons x 3
R-12 (SS-4 Sandal) Soviet Cold War Atomic warhead 2.3 megatons.
Ivy Mike test blast American Cold War Atomic warhead 10.4 megatons.

## Overkill?

As with all wars there are limitations to practicality and the risk of over kill, the destruction of what is supposed to be captured and one's own forces and their allies.

Mission chosen. The target. Nuke's atomic yield. Nuke Used. The Dead. The Wounded. Outer edge of 3rd degree burns.
Wipe out most of a major city Broadway-Lafayette Subway Station, NY. Russian SS-25 Topol 800kt 1,180,300 1,401,440 60% in to SCX South Kerny Yard, NY.
Destroy a major military base and support centre Chambers Field NAS, Norfolk, VA French TN80/81 300kt 16,550 46,980 Bud Metheny Baseball Facility, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.
Completely and pointlessly annihilate Spokane, Washington, and it's out-lying suberbs like Airway Highs. Unerhill Park, Spokane WA Chinese Dong Fen 5 5mt 170,330 116,030 25% in to Meadow Wood Golf Course
Destroy a major railroad marshalling yard The SCX South Kerny Yard, NY. Largest Indian atomic missile 60kt 4,540 54,740 Hudson City Savings Bank, John F. Kennedy Blvd, near the junction with Jewett Ave.
Destroy 42nd Street Port Authority Bus Terminal, PABA bus terminal (ACE), Time Sq-42nd St station, Av/w 41st station, The Manhattan Thearter Centrer and The Times Centre. 42nd Street Port Authority Bus Terminal, PABA bus terminal (ACE) American Davy Crockett battle field nuke. 20 tones 18,590 11,540 Madame Tuasudes NY, but there is a even larger radiation zone with this one and it reached Golder Mayer Sq, NY.
Destroy central, Ocala Chazal Park, Ocala N. Korean highest A-bomb blast 10kt 2,160 7,260 Uncle Roy's Mobile Home Sales, NW 4th Ave.

.

Outside of central Europe the Soviets' plans for Europe were to destroy military and industrial stuff, since they wanted to conquer, enslave and plunder (see the GDR). The USA was the only nation who went mostly after eastern European civvies in cities. US Brits, the French, China, S. Africa and the Israelis only wanted to do what was necessary to stay alive.

The DPRK, S. Korea and Cuba would be toast. San Julián Air Base and San Antonio de los Baños Airfield were not hit, but Havana and San Diego. A sea strike at Inishtrahull off the Donegal coast, since UK subs regularly loitered their. The American airbase at Aarbourg was targeted, but not Copenhagen as many thought.

## Public and scholastic response

### CND

The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) was founded in 1957 by Canon John Collins as a peace organisation that advocates avoiding nuclear war by the unilateral nuclear disarmament of the United Kingdom, eventual international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation along with restrictions on weapons testing through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It is also opposed to any military action that may result in the use of any nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK.

### The Doomsday Clock

Since 1947, the Doomsday Clock of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists visualises how far they think the world is from a nuclear war.

### Popular culture

The threat of a nuclear holocaust plays an important role in the popular perception of nuclear weapons. It features in the security concept of mutually assured destruction (MAD) and is a common scenario in survivalism. Nuclear holocaust is a common feature in literature, online sites and film, especially in speculative genres such as science fiction, dystopian, doomsday and post-apocalyptic fiction.

Also see- these 3 wikis for an interesting alternate history stories about the event.

The Helium Bomb (ヘリウム爆弾, Heriumu Bakudan) was known a nuclear weapon created (in this work of fiction) by the Garanda Empire.

1. http://kamenrider.wikia.com/wiki/Helium_Bomb

The Meson bomb and related systems was known a nuclear weapon created (in these works of fiction) by TC, Metroid Prime and Metroid Prime 3

## Missile and anti-missile silo hunting

1. Anti-ballistic missile system (ABM) deployed around Moscow to counter enemy ICBM targeting the city. In silos are probably Gazelle (SH-08) interceptor missiles. [1]
2. Plattsburgh AFB Atlas Missile Site #07, 44.5472222, -73.975 [2]
3. An anonymous Silo door, near Parshal, ND. 47.853609,-102.127275 [3]