In 1978, the American Department of Defense (DoD) staged a worldwide pseudo-armed deployment exercise called, command post Exercise Nifty Nugget. It revealed a general lack of flexibility when multiple transportation modes were required jointly and that the various data processing systems and operational command systems could not function efficiently together.
It also exposed great gaps in understanding between military and civilian participants: mobilization and deployment plans fell apart, and as a result, the United States and its NATO allies "lost the war", especially in Western Europe, Central Europe, the Middle East and Alaska. It predicted a heavy Soviet victory on the basis that the Americans were too busy screwing about to even turn up at the battlefield, unlike the Soviets, Japanese, Australians, Canadians, British, French, Dutch, Hungarians, Czechoslovaks and both halves of Germany.
They realised what a mess they were in and made major several changes, including the Transportation Operating Agencies (later called the Transportation Component Commands) should have a direct reporting chain to the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and that the JCS should establish a single manager for deployment and execution. As a result, the JCS formed the Joint Deployment Agency (JDA) at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida in 1979.
Unknown, probably a few weeks.
- The Pentagon?
- U.S. Army
- Some alied nations bases such as those in the UK, Canada, Japan, S.Korea, W. Germany, Turkey, Australia and the Phillopines.
- Several other background and support services.
- Some civilian supply and resourcing organisations.
- Exercise Dnepr 1967
- Exercise Zapad-81
- Exercise Able Archer '83
- Exercise FleetEx '83
- United States Transportation Command
- Noteworthy Air bases