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US Army M60 tank in German village

An American M60 Patton moves through a village in West Germany as part of the 1982 Reforger exercise.

Belgian F-16B and South Dakota ANG A-7D 1988

A Belgian F-16B and a USAF LTV A-7 Corsair II take part in a mission during exercise "Cold Fire", one of the series of Reforger '88.

The GDR. AKA- East Germany or the DDR

East Germany (the GDR or DDR).

Over ViewEdit

The exercise was officially intended to ensure that NATO (principally W. Germany and the USA) had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a armed conflict with the Warsaw Pact. Many Germans found it a major inconvenience and did not like some of the Anglo-American troops' drunken antics that took place afterwards.

The North German Plain and Germany's Fulda Gap were the perceived to be the Soviet, E. German (GDR), Czechoslovakian, Hungarian and Polish targets. The USSR, GDR and Poland were seen as the backbone of such an invasion.

It's NameEdit

Exercise Reforger is taken from- return of forces to Germany.

HistoryEdit

SYND 22 1 69 US AIRLIFT FOR REFORGER EXERCISE01:28

SYND 22 1 69 US AIRLIFT FOR REFORGER EXERCISE

The massive American airlift of troops for the 1969 Reforger exercise ends.

The Reforger exercise itself was first conceived in 1967. The Johnson administration announced plans to withdraw approximately two divisions from Europe during 1968. As a demonstration of its continuing commitment to the defense of NATO and to illustrate its capability of rapid reinforcement, a large scale force deployment was planned that would deploy a division or more to West Germany in a regular annual exercise. The first such exercise was conducted beginning on 6 January 1969. These exercises continued annually past the end of the Cold War, except for the year 1989, until 1993. Reforger 1975 marked the operational presence of the United States Marine Corps in Europe for the first time since World War I when the 2nd Marine Division's 32nd Marine Amphibious Unit (32nd MAU) was deployed from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina as part of that exercise. Reforger 1988 was billed as the largest European ground maneuver since the end of World War II as 125,000 troops were deployed.

Operation Bright Star, the biannual deployment of American army and air force units to Egypt, serves much the same purpose as Reforger did.

The the exercise it's selfEdit

The first exercise began in January 1969 with 17,000 Soldiers, the last ended in May 1993 with 7,000 and the largest exercise was in 1988 which included 124,800 Soldiers.

The conceptEdit

Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact.

Reforger was not merely a show of force—in the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

The US Army also increased its rapid-reinforcement capability by prepositioning huge stocks of equipment and supplies in Europe at POMCUS sites. The maintenance of this equipment has provided extensive on-the-job training to reserve-component support units.

The Exercise REFORGER's component exercisesEdit

Name Start Date Major Units
Reforger I JAN 1969 (Germany based unit) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): HQ and 2nd Squadron of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg. (U.S. based unit): 24th Infantry Division (Mech).
Reforger II OCT 1970 (Germany based unit) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg. (U.S. based unit): 1st Infantry Division (Mech)
Reforger III OCT 1971 (Germany based unit) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 1st Armored Division (Ansbach). (U.S. based unit) 1st Infantry Division (Mech).
Reforger IV JAN 1973 (Germany based unit): 557 QMC Idar-Oberstein. (U.S. based unit): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 2nd Armored Division.
Reforger V Oct 1973 (Germany based unit) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg; (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 1st Cavalry Division.
Reforger 74 SEP 1974 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg; 1st Armored Division, Ansbach. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 1st Cavalry Division, 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach.
Reforger 75 SEP 1975 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech),Würzburg; 2nd Armored Division, Nuremberg; 3rd Armored Division, Frankfurt-am-Main. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (sent to Northern Germany to support British forces stationed there for the first time), 2nd Marine Division/32nd Marine Amphibious Unit
Reforger 76 SEP 1976 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 1st Armored Division, Ansbach; 2nd Armored Division, Nuremberg; 8th infantry Division (3rd Brigade, Mannhiem). (U.S. based units): 101st Airborne, 1st Infantry Division (Mech)
Reforger 77 SEP 1977 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg; 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg; (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 4th Infantry Division (Mech), 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment.
Reforger 78 SEP 1978 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg. (U.S. based units): 4th Infantry Division (Mech); 5th Infantry Division (Mech); 9th Infantry Division (Mech); 1st Cavalry Division; 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment.
Reforger 79 JAN 1979 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg; 1st Armored Division, Ansbach. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech); 1st Cavalry Division.
Reforger 80 SEP 1980 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg; 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg; 1st Armored Division, Ansbach. (U.S. based units): 1st Cavalry Division.
Reforger 81 SEP 1981 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda; 3rd Armored Division, Frankfurt-am-Main; (U.S. based units) 4th Infantry Division (Mech), 1st Cavalry Division.
Reforger 82 SEP 1982 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg; 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 1st Armored Division, Ansbach. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 1st Cavalry Division.
Reforger 83 SEP 1983 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda; 3rd Armored Division, Frankfurt-am-Main; (U.S. based units): 1st Cavalry Division. Culminated in the now infamous Exercise Able Archer '83.
Reforger 84 SEP 1984 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 1st Infantry Division (Forward), Göppingen; 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg; 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech); 5th Infantry Division; 24th Infantry Division; 30th Armored Brigade (Sep): (TN-ARNG, Tennessee Army National Guard); 7th Infantry Division (Light): 3rd Brigade.
Reforger 85 JAN 1985 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda; 3rd Armored Division, Frankfurt-am-Main. (U.S. based units): 4th Infantry Division (Mech), 5th Infantry Division (Mech), 197th Infantry Brigade.
Reforger 86 - "Certain Sentinel" JAN 1986 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment: Fulda; 1st Armored Division: Ansbach. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 24th Infantry Division (Mech); 30th Armored Brigade (Sep) (TN-ARNG, Tennessee Army National Guard); 7th Infantry Division (Light) (3rd Brigade); 32nd Sep Inf Bdge (WI-ARNG)
Reforger 87 ~ "Certain Strike" SEP 1987 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 2nd Armored Division (Forward): Garlstedt. (U.S. based units): III Corps and III Corps Artillery: Ft. Hood; 1st Cavalry Division: Ft. Hood; 4th Infantry Division (Mech): Ft. Carson; 6th Cavalry Brigade (Air Combat): Ft. Hood; 45th Infantry Brigade (Sep): 1-279th Infantry (OK-ARNG, Oklahoma Army National Guard); 13th Support Command/Sustainment Command: Ft. Hood; 504th Military Intelligence/Battlefield Surveillance Brigade: Ft. Hood; 3rd Signal Brigade, Ft. Hood; 89th Military Police Brigade: Ft. Hood; 233rd Military Police Company: (33rd MP Battalion, IL-ARNG, Illinois Army National Guard); 420th Engineer Brigade (USAR, U.S. Army Reserve). 723rd Military Police Company: (165th MP Battalion, PA-ARNG, Pennsylvania Army National Guard)
Reforger 88 - "Certain Challenge" SEP 1988 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 3rd Infantry Division (Mech), Würzburg; 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg; 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda; 3rd Armored Division, Frankfurt-am-Main; Berlin Brigade, Berlin. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech); 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment; ; 197th Infantry Brigade; 45th Infantry Brigade, 1-179th Infantry (OK-ARNG, Oklahoma Army National Guard).
Reforger 90 - "Centurion Shield" 11 JAN 1990 to 28 JAN 1990 (Germany based units) USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe): 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach; 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nuremberg; 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda; 1st Armored Division, Ansbach; 3rd Armored Division, Frankfurt-am-Main. (U.S. based units): 1st Infantry Division (Mech), 2nd Armored Division, 10th Mountain Division (-); 31st Separate Armored Brigade Army (Alabama Army National Guard)
Reforger 91 SEP 1991 (U.S. based unit) 4th Infantry Division
Reforger 92 - "Certain Caravan" SEP 1992 (U.S. based units): HQ, 1st Infantry Division (Mech); Parts 2nd Brigade, 1st (U.S) Infantry Division (Mech); HQ, 24th Infantry Division (Mech), 30th Armored Brigade (Sep) (Tennessee Army National Guard); HQ, 3rd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division (Light)
Reforger 93 MAY 1993 (Germany based units) U.S. Army Europe: 1st Armored Division, Ansbach; 3rd Infantry Division (Mech) Würzburg.

DurationEdit

It lasted a few weeks each year and ran from 1967 to 1993.

ParticipantsEdit

Refoger 198813:08

Refoger 1988

Manöver Schillingsfürst 1988

Principally USA and the FRG (W. Germany), with the Dutch and Belgians less so. Several other nations participated in in a minor capacity in 1992, 1988 and 1967.

  1. Canada- 1992,
  2. France- 1992,
  3. Luxembourg- 1992,
  4. Norway- 1992,
  5. Denmark- 1988 and 1992,
  6. The UK- 1992, 1988 and 1967,
  7. USA- Always,
  8. Belgium- Always,
  9. Netherlands- Always,
  10. W. Germany- Always,
  11. Austria and Switzerland only as observers in 1980 and 1981.

W. German controversy and compensation claimedEdit

Many West Germans were concerned by the disruption and damage caused by the land forces, so NATO (principally the USA and the UK on occasion) gave fiscal and and material aid to both the FRG and it's citizens.

5 known NATO axident compensations given in 1989 to W. Germany and W. Germans were-

  1. 2 cars crushed by tanks.
  2. The crops in several farms' fields that were torn up by vehicles in them.
  3. A shop facia destroyed by an army truck.
  4. A road singe knocked over by a tank.
  5. A farm chicken coop crushed by a tank.
  6. A farm fence by crushed by a tank

VideoEdit

Return of forces to Germany III (REFORGER) exercise in Panzing, Germany03:49

Return of forces to Germany III (REFORGER) exercise in Panzing, Germany. HD Stock Footage

Return of forces to Germany III (REFORGER) exercise in Panzing.

Reforger II - NATO Exercise (1970)32:30

Reforger II - NATO Exercise (1970)

Reforger II - NATO Exercise (1970).

REFORGER II NATO32:36

REFORGER II NATO

REFORGER II NATO (1970).

Also seeEdit

  1. military exercise 'Highway 84'
  2. Exercise FleetEx '83
  3. Exercise Zapad-81
  4. A nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse
  5. "Poland is 'toast'!"
  6. River Elbe Line
  7. Exercise Teamwork '88
  8. Operation Northern Norway
  9. Operation Chrome Dome
  10. Operation Gladio
  11. NATO command structures and HQs
  12. Exercise Able Archer '83
  13. Exercise Operation Bright Star '80\'81\'82\'83\'85\'87
  14. USAF Red Flag exercises
  15. Military exercises

LinkEdit

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise_Reforger
  2. http://www.32nd-division.org/history/REFORGER/32-REFORGER(2).html
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise_Reforger
  4. http://mihalko-family.com/REFORGER.htm
  5. http://www.wow.com/wiki/Exercise_Reforger
  6. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/REFORGER
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise_Reforger
  8. http://mihalko-family.com/REFORGER.htm
  9. https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=AwrBT83QOzBZ2EEAyyRXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTByMjB0aG5zBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDBHNlYwNzYw--?p=Exercise+Reforger&fr=yset_chr_cnewtab

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