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Geiger counter

A "two-piece" bench type Geiger–Müller counter with end-window detector.

The deviceEdit

The Geiger counter is an instrument used for measuring ionizing radiation used widely in such applications as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

It detects ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays using the ionization effect produced in a Geiger–Müller tube; which gives its name to the instrument. In wide and prominent use as a hand-held radiation survey instrument, it is perhaps one of the world's best-known radiation detection instruments.

A Geiger counter consists of a Geiger-Müller tube, the sensing element which detects the radiation, and the processing electronics, which displays the result. The Geiger-Müller tube is filled with an inert gas such as helium, neon, or argon at low pressure, to which a high voltage is applied.

How it worksEdit

The original detection principle was discovered in 1908, but it was not until the development of the Geiger-Müller tube in 1928 that the Geiger-Müller counter became a practical instrument. Since then it has been very popular due to its robust sensing element and relatively low cost. However, there are limitations in measuring high radiation rates and the energy of incident radiation.

UsagesEdit

The Geiger counter is an instrument used for measuring ionizing radiation used widely in such applications as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

most Civil Defense devices were actually ion-chamber radiological survey meters capable of measuring only high levels of radiation that would be present after a major nuclear event.

Most of the Geiger and ion-chamber survey meters were issued by governmental Civil Defense organizations in several countries from the 1950s in the midst of the Cold War in an effort to help prepare citizens for a nuclear attack.

Many of these same instruments are still in use today by some states, Texas amongst them, under the jurisdiction of the Texas Bureau of Radiation Control. They are regularly maintained, calibrated and deployed to fire depts and other emergency services.

Also seeEdit

  1. Nukes
  2. EMP
  3. Atomic warfare information notes.
  4. Atomic accidents and disasters
  5. Atomic\nuclear war
  6. Science
  7. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant accidents
  8. UK OTL atomic reactors in 1962
  9. POMCUS sites
  10. Mushroom cloud
  11. 1960 Bomarc Missile accident

LinksEdit

  1. https://www.cpp.edu/~pbsiegel/bio431/texnotes/chapter4.pdf
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geiger_counter
  3. http://www.national-radiation-instrument-catalog.com/
  4. http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/irp7.pdf
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Defense_Geiger_counters
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townsend_discharge
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geiger%E2%80%93M%C3%BCller_tube
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaseous_ionization_detectors
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionization_chamber

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