FANDOM


IMPORTANT:This page has used CC-BY-SA content from Wikipedia in either a refactored, modified, abridged, expanded, built on or 'strait from' text content!


Over viewEdit

Euston Arch 1896

A Photograph of the Euston Arch, London in 1896.

Euston railway station or London Euston /ˈlʌndən.ˈjuːstən/ is a central London railway terminus and one of 19 stations managed by Network Rail. It is the sixth busiest railway station in the UK. Euston was named after the rural family seat of the Dukes of Grafton, Euston Hall in Norfolk.

Euston is the southern terminus of the West Coast Main Line, the busiest intercity passenger route in Britain and the main gateway from London to the West Midlands, the North West, North Wales and parts of Scotland. Virgin Trains provides high-speed intercity services to these regions. Its most important long-distance destinations are Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and Glasgow.

Euston is also the London terminus for London Midland trains providing local commuter and regional services via the WCML from London to Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire and Warwickshire as well as long-distance services to the West Midlands county, Staffordshire and Cheshire. Euston is also the terminus for suburban services on the Watford DC Line operated by London Overground.

It is connected to Euston tube station and near to Euston Square tube station on the London Underground. It is a short walk from King's Cross Station, the southern terminus of the East Coast Main Line, and St Pancras International Station for the Midland Main Line and for Eurostar to France and Belgium. These stations are all in Travelcard Zone 1.

Euston is the gateway to Ireland via Holyhead and ferry to Dublin Port where the previous route was replaced in September 2014 to Dún Laoghaire, for Dublin. Until the 1960s the station was a terminus of the most-frequented London to Belfast route, via Carlisle, the former Castle Douglas and Dumfries Railway and the Portpatrick Railway to Stranraer which was replaced by the longer Glasgow South Western Line via Ayr.

The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is a major inter-city railway route in the United Kingdom. It is Britain's most important rail backbone in terms of population served. The route links Greater London, the West Midlands, the North West, North Wales and the Central Belt of Scotland.

The WCML is the most important intercity rail passenger route in the United Kingdom, connecting the major cities of London, Coventry, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow and Edinburgh which have a combined metropolitan population of over 24 million people. In addition, several sections of the WCML form part of the suburban railway systems in London, Birmingham, Manchester and Glasgow, with many more smaller commuter stations, as well as providing a number of links to more rural towns. In 2008 the WCML handled 75 million passenger journeys.

The WCML is also one of the busiest freight routes in Europe, carrying 43% of all UK rail freight traffic. The line is the principal rail freight corridor linking the European mainland (via the Channel Tunnel) through London and South East England to the West Midlands, North West England and Scotland. The line has been declared a strategic European route and designated a priority Trans-European Networks (TENS) route.

Since an upgrade in recent years, much of the line has a maximum speed of 125 mph (201 km/h), thereby meeting the European Union's definition of an upgraded high-speed line, although only the Class 390 Pendolinos and Class 221 Super Voyagers operated by Virgin Trains are permitted to travel up to that speed, as they have tilting mechanisms and can travel through curves faster than conventional trains. Other traffic, including the Class 350s, are limited to 110 mph (177 km/h). The WCML has a significantly higher number of curves than most other main lines in Britain, hence the requirement for tilting operation for higher speeds.

The station has 18 platforms: platforms 8 to 11 are used for London Overground and London Midland commuter and regional services, and have automatic ticket gates. Platforms 1, 2, 14 and 15 are extra long to accommodate the 16-car Caledonian Sleeper.

The station and railway line have been owned by the L&BR (1837–1845), the London and North Western Railway (1846–1922), the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (1923–1947), British Railways (1948–1994), Railtrack (1994–2001) and Network Rail (2001–present).

HistoryEdit

FoundingEdit

Euston was the first intercity railway station in London, opened on 20 July 1837 as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR). The building was demolished in the 1960s and replaced with the present building in the international modern style.

The site was chosen in the early 1830s by George and Robert Stephenson, engineers of the L&BR. The area was mostly farmland at the edge of the expanding city. The station was named after Euston Hall in Suffolk, the ancestral home of the Dukes of Grafton, the main landowners in the area. Objections by local farmers meant that, when the Act authorising construction of the line was passed in 1833, the terminus was at Chalk Farm. These objections were overcome, and in 1835 an Act authorised construction of the station, which then went ahead.

The original station was built by William Cubitt. It was designed by the classically trained architect Philip Hardwick with a 200 ft (61 m)-long trainshed by structural engineer Charles Fox. It had two platforms, one for departures and one for arrivals. Also by Hardwick was a 72 ft (22 m)-high Doric propylaeum, the largest ever built, erected at the entrance as a portico, known as the Euston Arch. The station grew rapidly as traffic increased. It was greatly expanded with the opening in 1849.

WW1Edit

Traffic was heavy, especially with troop and supply trains.

WW2Edit

British Railways in Wartime - Bridge of Goodbyes- Everyday Life at Euston Station, London, England, UK, 1944 D18904

ones. In the foreground, a group of two women and two children can be seen waving to someone at the window of the carriage,and further down the platform, a soldier leans out of the window to give his girlfriend one last kiss. Scenes such as this are repeated down the length of the train, whilst other servicemen and women (including a WAAF, centre), await their own trains. British Railways in Wartime - Bridge of Goodbyes- Everyday Life at Euston Station, London, England, UK, 1944.

By the 1930s Euston had become congested, and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) considered rebuilding it, but WW2 got in the way. It was very busy and was bombed a few times during the war. A HE head B2 EZ [anti-industrial type] Incendiary Bomb was IB dropped on Euston Station, London in 1940.

There was a dedicated restaurant car depot in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s.

The Euston Station Strike of 1948.Edit

Euston Rail Strike (1948)-146439367201:14

Euston Rail Strike (1948)-1464393672

Atendance and stored goods during the strike at Euston Station, London. The Euston Rail Strike of 13/12/1948.

The Euston Rail Strike occurred on 13/12/1948.

The 'Beeching Axe'Edit

A massive redevelopment was recommended due to the numerous problems with disabled access, congestion, line utilisation and a reputation with both staff and travelers over poor lighting. Local line electrification was from 1955 to the early 1960s. Following the 1955 modernisation plan, the main line it served was modernised and electrified in stages between 1959 and 1974.

Architectural controversy over the "Great Bathtub"\"Kitchen Sink" 1960s redesignEdit

Euston Station from above - 01

Euston railway station from the 5th floor of One Euston Square on the 12th of September, 2013, at 14:52:26.

Euston main line station concourse

Euston main line ("bath tub") station concourse, pictures in July 2012.

In the early 1960s it was decided that a larger station was required. Because of the restricted layout of track and tunnels at the northern end, enlargement could be accomplished only by expanding southwards over the area occupied by the Great Hall and the Arch. Amid much public outcry, the station building and the Arch were demolished in 1961–2 and replaced by a new building. The rebuilding lasted from 1962 to 1968.

Its opening in 1968 followed the electrification of the West Coast Main Line, and the new structure was intended to symbolise the coming of the "electric age". The station was built by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd to a design by BR's architects in consultation with Richard Seifert & Partners, responsible for the second phase of the complex in the late 1970s.

The station is a long, low structure with a frontage of some 197 m (646 ft). The second phase consists of a bus terminal and three low-rise office towers overlooking Melton Street and Eversholt Street. The offices were occupied by British Rail, then by Railtrack, and finally by Network Rail, which has now vacated all but a small portion of one of the towers.

There is a large statue by Eduardo Paolozzi named Piscator dedicated to German theatre director Erwin Piscator at the front of the courtyard. Other pieces of public art, including low stone benches by Paul de Monchaux around the courtyard, were commissioned by Network Rail in the 1990s.

The lack of daylight on the platforms compares unfavourably with the glazed trainshed roofs of traditional Victorian railway stations, but the use of the space above as a parcels depot released the maximum space at ground level for platforms and passenger facilities.

A bus terminal and three office blocks were added to the plaza sited at the front of the station during the late 1970s.

Euston's 1960s style of architecture has been described as "hideous", "a dingy, grey, horizontal nothingness" and a reflection of "the tawdry glamour of its time", entirely lacking in "the sense of occasion, of adventure, that the great Victorian termini gave to the traveller". Writing in The Times, Richard Morrison stated that "even by the bleak standards of Sixties architecture, Euston is one of the nastiest concrete boxes in London: devoid of any decorative merit; seemingly concocted to induce maximum angst among passengers; and a blight on surrounding streets. The design should never have left the drawing-board – if, indeed, it was ever on a drawing-board. It gives the impression of having been scribbled on the back of a soiled paper bag by a thuggish android with a grudge against humanity and a vampiric loathing of sunlight". Michael Palin, explorer and travel writer, in his contribution to Great Railway Journeys titled "Confessions of a Trainspotter", likened it to "a great bath, full of smooth, slippery surfaces where people can be sloshed about efficiently". Variouse stalls, booth and information points had started to pop-up at the edged by the mid-1980s and had spead firther in to the concorse by 2000. 

Access to parts of the station is difficult for people with physical disability. The ramps from the concourse down to platform level are too steep for unassisted wheelchairs, but the introduction of lifts in May 2010 made the taxi rank and underground station accessible from the concourse.

The demolition of the original buildings in 1962 has been described as "one of the greatest acts of Post-War architectural vandalism in Britain" and is believed to have been approved by the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, the first of a line of Prime Ministers who championed motorway building. The replacement trainshed has a low, flat roof, making no attempt to match the airy style of London's major 19th century trainsheds. The attempts made to preserve the earlier building, championed by the later Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman, led to the formation of The Victorian Society and heralded the modern conservation movement. This movement saved the nearby high Gothic St Pancras Station when threatened with demolition in 1966, ultimately leading to its renovation in 2007 as the terminus of HS1 to the Continent.

The demolition of the original building is often compared to the 1963 demolition of New York Penn Station, which similarly alerted preservationists in New York City to the importance of saving historic buildings.

IRA bombEdit

Extensive but superficial damage was caused by an IRA bomb that exploded close to a snack bar at approximately 1:10 pm on 10 September 1973, injuring eight people. The Metropolitan Police had received a three-minute warning and were unable to evacuate the station completely, but British Transport Police evacuated much of the area just before the explosion, reducing casualties. In 1974, the mentally-ill Judith Ward was convicted of this and other crimes despite the evidence against her being highly suspect. She was acquitted in 1992, and the actual culprit has not been found.

Redeveloping the old goodsyardEdit

The location of the goods locomotive roundhouse and goods yard on the site were re-developed in the 1970s. Many of the station's train stabling sidings were upgraded in 2002 and the worn out older parts removed.

Life todayEdit

Ownership of the station transferred from British Rail to Railtrack plc in 1994, passing to Network Rail in 2002 following the collapse of Railtrack. Many of the train  stabling sidings were then upgraded and the worn out older parts removed.

In 2005 Network Rail was reported to have long-term aspirations to redevelop the station, removing the 1960s buildings and providing more commercial space by using the "air rights" above the platforms.

In December 2005 Network Rail announced plans to create a subway link to Euston Square tube station, currently separated by a five-minute walk along Euston Road.

On 5 April 2007, British Land announced that it had won the tender to demolish and rebuild the station, spending some £250m of its overall redevelopment budget of £1bn for the area. The number of platforms would increase from 18 to 21. Media reports in early 2008 hinted that the Arch could be rebuilt.

Sydney & London Properties, project manager to the Euston Estate Limited Partnership, launched a Vision Masterplan in May 2008 with the aim of stimulating debate about the future of the station and its neighbourhood.

In September 2011 plans for demolition were cancelled, and Aedas was appointed to give the station a makeover.

It is also planned to connect it with the planned HS2 network.

StatsEdit

UsageEdit

Euston is the sixth-busiest terminus in London by entries and exits.

PlatformsEdit

  1. 1837- 4 for passengers.
  2. 1840- 4 for passengers and 2 for parcels.
  3. 1873- 6 for passengers and 2 for parcels.
  4. 1890- 6 for passengers and 3 for parcels.
  5. 1892- 14 for passengers and 1 for parcels.
    • Nos 1/2 (built 1873)
    • No 3 (1837, the original arrival platform)
    • Nos 4/5 (1891)
    • No 6 (1837, the original departure platform)
    • Nos 7/8 (two short platforms that were rarely used)
    • Nos 9/10 (1840, mostly used for parcels)
    • No 11 (mainly used for parcels)
    • Nos 12–15 (1892, used for main line services and accessed from a separate entrance termed the West Station).
  6. 1962- 15 for passengers and 3 for parcels.
  7. 1982- 15 for passengers, 1 for parcels and 2 disused.
  8. 1999- 17 for passengers and 1 for spare stock, maintenance trains and rush-our usage.
  9. 2016- 18 for passengers.

Euston Square Tube StationEdit

Euston Square tube station, Westbound platform - geograph.org.uk - 977128

Euston Square tube station, Westbound platform on the 19th of September, 2008. This station was built as Gower Street, changing to its present name in 1909.

Over viewEdit

Euston Square is a London Underground station at the corner of Euston Road and Gower Street, just north of University College London and within walking distance of Euston railway station. It is between Great Portland Street and King's Cross St. Pancras on the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, in Travelcard Zone 1 and has 2 platforms. It should not be confused with the nearby Euston tube station for the Northern and Victoria lines. 

HistoryEdit

The station opened in 1863 as "Gower Street", changing to its present name in 1909. In late 2006 the new entrance on the south side of Euston Road opened in a corner of the new headquarters of the Wellcome Trust replacing the old entrance. There is also a subway entrance on the north side of Euston Road. In 2011, two new lifts linking the westbound platform to the street were opened. On top of these a new modern entrance was opened.

Future plansEdit

In December 2005 Network Rail announced plans to create a subway link between the station and Euston station as part of the re-development of Euston station. This will create a direct link for users of main line rail services which depart from Euston. These plans would also be pursued during a rebuilding for High Speed 2.

bus connectionsEdit

London Buses routes 10, 14, 18, 24, 27, 29, 30, 73, 88, 134, 205 and 390 and night routes N5, N18, N20, N29, N73, N205 and N279 serve the station.

Euston Tube StationEdit

Euston tube station Northern line Bank branch southbound look south

The extra wide southbound platform of the Northern line's Bank branch formed by the removal of the northbound track (passengers on the right are standing where the northbound track was).

OverviewEdit

Euston is a London Underground station served by the Victoria line and both branches of the Northern line and has 6 platforms. It directly connects with Euston main line station above it. The station is in Travelcard Zone 1.

Euston was constructed as two separate underground stations. Three of the four Northern line platforms date from the station's opening in 1907. The fourth Northern line platform and the two Victoria line platforms were constructed in the 1960s when the station was significantly altered to accommodate the Victoria line. Plans for High Speed 2 and Crossrail 2 both include proposals to modify the station to provide interchanges with the new services.

On the Northern line's Bank branch the station is between Camden Town and King's Cross St Pancras. On the Charing Cross branch it is between Mornington Crescent and Warren Street. On the Victoria line it is between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras. The station is near Euston Square station allowing connections at street level to the Circle, Hammersmith and City and Metropolitan lines.

Euston station is directly above and connected to Euston tube station, on the Victoria line and the Northern line (both Bank and Charing Cross branches) of the London Underground. Euston Square tube station on the Circle line, Hammersmith & City line and Metropolitan line is a five-minute walk away along Euston Road.

Victoria lineEdit

Plans for the route that eventually became the Victoria line date from the 1940s. A proposal for a new underground railway line linking north-east London with the centre was included in the County of London Plan in 1943. Between 1946 and 1954, a series of routes were proposed by different transport authorities to connect various places in south and north or north-east London. Each of these connected the three main line termini at King's Cross, Euston and Victoria. A route was approved in 1955 with future extensions to be decided later, though funding for the construction was not approved by the government until 1962.

The extra wide southbound platform of the Northern line's Bank branch formed by the removal of the northbound track (passengers on the right are standing where the northbound track was). At Euston, major reconstruction works were undertaken to incorporate the new Victoria line platforms so that cross-platform interchanges could be provided with the Northern line's Bank branch—the former C&SLR route to King's Cross and Bank. Unlike the former CCE&HR platforms, which were in separate tunnels with side platforms, the Bank branch tracks served an island platform in a single large tunnel. These platforms suffered from dangerous overcrowding at peak times. To provide cross-platform interchange, a new section of tunnel was constructed for northbound Bank branch trains, which were diverted to a new platform south of the original alignment. The redundant northbound track bed in the station tunnel was filled in to form a wider southbound platform. The new Victoria line platforms were excavated between and parallel to the original and the new Bank branch tunnels. Each pair of platforms was linked via a concourse served by escalators.

In conjunction with the reconstruction of the main line station above, a new ticket hall was excavated below the concourse with two sets of escalators replacing the lifts. The escalators provide access to and from an intermediate passenger circulation level, which, in turn, gives access to the Northern line Charing Cross branch platforms and two further sets of escalators; one set each serving the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern line Bank branch platforms. Interchanges between the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern Bank Line platforms are made via a passageway at the lower level so as to avoid the need to use the escalators. An emergency stair to the intermediate interchange level is located midway along the passageway. The Victoria line platforms opened on 1 December 1968 when the second section of the line was opened between Highbury & Islington and Warren Street. Disused passages remain with tiling and posters from the 1960s.

Future proposalsEdit

Unlike the neighbouring main line termini, St Pancras and Kings Cross, Euston is not served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. Euston Square station, which is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, is approximately 250 metres (270 yd) to the south-west. Plans for the redevelopment of the main line station for High Speed 2 include the construction of a direct connection to Euston Square. Proposals for Crossrail 2 include an underground station serving Euston and St Pancras that will be integrated with the existing London Underground station.

Euston station is directly above and connected to Euston tube station, on the Victoria line and the Northern line (both Bank and Charing Cross branches) of the London Underground. Euston Square tube station on the Circle line, Hammersmith & City line and Metropolitan line is a five-minute walk away along Euston Road.

If High Speed 2 goes ahead, Transport for London (TfL) plans to change the safeguarded route for the proposed Chelsea–Hackney line to include Euston between Tottenham Court Road and King's Cross St Pancras. As part of the rebuilding work for High Speed 2, it is proposed to integrate Euston and Euston Square into a single tube station.

Bus connectionsEdit

London Bus routes 18, 59, 68, 91, 168, 253 and 476 and night routes N5, N20, N91 and N253 serve Euston bus station outside the main line station.

Euston Bus StationEdit

Eustonbusstation 707

Euston Bus Station in May, 2009. Attribution: Whohe! at English Wikipedia.

HistoryEdit

There is a major bus station directly in front of the station for bus services to many parts of London.

Euston Bus Station serves the Euston area of Camden, London, England. The station is owned and maintained by Transport for London

It is situated next to Euston main line railway station and above Euston tube station and near Euston Square. It was opened in 1979, to a design by Richard Seifert.

There are five stands at the bus station that are serviced by routes operated by Arriva London, London Central, London General, London United, Metroline and Tower Transit.

Layout and busesEdit

There are two entrances that serve buses both entering and leaving the bus station.

One entrance diverges off Eversholt Street opposite Grafton Place. Routes that terminate such as 18, 68, 253 and 476 usually enter via this entrance and continue to their designated stands, routes 59 and 91 which continue to King's Cross also use this entrance and turn on the roundabout to exit at the same point. Strangely, route 59 towards Holborn also passes through the bus station whereas route 91 turns left directly from Euston Road onto Upper Woburn Place.

The second entrance diverges off Euston Road, it serves as a starting point for route 18 with Bus Stop (F) close by. Routes 10, 30, 73, 205 and 390 heading east towards King's Cross call here and exit via Grafton Place. Buses on these routes heading west do not use the bus station, staying on Euston Road.

Night routes N5, N20, N205 and N253 call at the station in both directions.

Also seeEdit

  1. UK railways- 1945 to 1985
  2. Ronan Point
  3. "London's Burning" (the political epithet, not the UK TV show)
  4. Famous buildings

SourcesEdit

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euston_railway_station
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euston_Square_tube_station
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euston_bus_station
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euston_tube_station
  5. http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/upload/pdf/stn_usage_report_0708.pdf
  6. http://www.networkrail.co.uk/managed-stations/
  7. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/stations/EUS/details.html
  8. http://www.networkrail.co.uk/browse
  9. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/pi/highspeedrail/commandpaper/pdf/cmdpaper.pdf
  10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/10/newsid_2504000/2504619.stm
  11. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/42/a5861342.shtml
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euston_railway_station
  13. http://www.describe-online.com/lul/euston/findplatformfromentrance.htm
  14. http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=1243446
  15. http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/28003
  16. http://www.crht1837.org/history/lbr
  17. http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/labelled-evacuees-waiting-for-their-train-out-of-euston-news-photo/3291922
  18. http://www.britishpathe.com/video/euston-rail-strike
  19. http://www.disused-stations.org.uk/m/morecambe_euston_road/index3.shtml
  20. https://www.networkrail.co.uk/virtualarchive/euston-station/
  21. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Coast_Main_Line
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euston_Square_tube_station
  23. http://www.bombsight.org/explore/greater-london/camden/regents-park/
  24. http://www.nickcooper.org.uk/subterra/lu/tuaw.htm
  25. http://www.ww2airdroppedordnance.com/incendiary-bombs.html
  26. https://www.pinterest.com/highholborn/wartime-london/
  27. http://www.vauxhallandkennington.org.uk/bombing.shtml
  28. http://www.answers.com/Q/What_famous_buildings_were_destroyed_in_the_london_blitz
  29. http://www.bombsight.org/explore/greater-london/camden/regents-park/

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.