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Harold Wilson Number 10 official

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx (1916-1995) in Downing Street during 1974. Author- Vivienne (Florence Mellish Entwistle) (Active 1940, died 1982)- http://www.gac.culture.gov.uk.

Lord Mountbatten Navy Allan Warren

Lord Mountbatten in 1976, by Allan Warren.

OverviewEdit

Ever since the mid-1970s, a variety of conspiracy theories have emerged regarding British Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976, winning four general elections. These range from Wilson having been a Soviet agent (a claim which MI5 investigated and found to be false), to Wilson being the victim of treasonous plots by conservative-leaning elements in MI5, claims which Wilson himself made.

Those making the allegationsEdit

Peter Wright, in his book Spycatcher, claimed that in 1967 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron and MI5 agent Cecil King, and the Government's chief scientific adviser, Solly Zuckerman. King and Peter Wright were members of a group of 30 MI5 officers who wanted to stage a coup against the then crisis-stricken Labour Government of Harold Wilson, and King allegedly used the meeting to urge Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman pointed out that it was treason, and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act.

In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–76). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party, which was (and still is) partly funded by affiliated trade unions, was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5.

On the BBC television programme The Plot Against Harold Wilson, broadcast on 16 March 2006 on BBC2, it was claimed there were threats of a coup d'état against the Wilson government, which was corroborated by leading figures of the time on both the left and the right. Wilson told two BBC journalists, Roger Courtiour and Barrie Penrose, who recorded the meetings on a cassette tape recorder, that he feared he was being undermined by MI5. The first time was in the late 1960s after the Wilson Government devalued the pound sterling but the threat faded after Conservative leader Edward Heath won the election of 1970. However, after a coal miners' strike Heath decided to hold an election to renew his mandate to govern in February 1974 but lost narrowly to Wilson. There was again talk of a military coup, with rumours of Lord Mountbatten as head of an interregnal administration after Wilson had been deposed. In 1974 the Army occupied Heathrow Airport on the grounds of training for possible IRA terrorist action at the airport. However Baroness Falkender (a senior aide and close friend of Harold Wilson) asserted that the operation was ordered as a practice run for a military takeover or as a show of strength, as the government itself was not informed of such an exercise based around a key point in the nation's transport infrastructure

The first official history of MI5, The Defence of the Realm published in 2009, tacitly confirmed that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt, who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5...a lot of them like Peter Wright who were rightwing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government."

Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn is said to have told Alec MacDonald, who set up safe houses where Golitsyn could live, that Wilson was a KGB operative and that former Labour Party leader Hugh Gaitskell had been assassinated by the KGB to have the pro-US Gaitskell replaced as party leader by Wilson. Guardian journalist David Leigh, however, claims that Golitsyn was guessing. Christopher Andrew, the official historian for Britain's MI5, has described Golitsyn as an "unreliable conspiracy theorist".

In his controversial memoir Spycatcher (1987), former MI5 officer Peter Wright stated that the head of the CIA's Counterintelligence Division, James Angleton, told him that Wilson was a Soviet agent when Wilson was elected Prime Minister in 1964. Wright said that Angleton said he had heard this from a source (whom he did not name but who was probably Golitsyn). According to Wright, Angleton offered to provide further information on the condition that MI5 guarantee to keep the allegations from "political circles", but the management of MI5 declined to accept restrictions on the use of the information and Angleton told them nothing more.

At the end of the 1960s, Wright wrote, MI5 received information from two Czechoslovakian defectors, Josef Frolík and František August, who had fled to the West, alleging the Labour Party had "almost certainly" been penetrated by the Soviets. The two named a list of Labour MPs and trade unionists as Soviet agents.

Peter Wright's allegation about Operation Clockwork OrangeEdit

Peter Wright claimed that he was confronted by two of his MI5 colleagues and that they said to him: "Wilson's a bloody menace and it's about time the public knew the truth", and "We'll have him out, this time we'll have him out". Wright alleged that there was a plan to leak damaging information about Wilson and that this had been approved by 'up to thirty officers'. As the 1974 election approached, the plan went, MI5 would leak selective details of the intelligence about Labour leaders, especially Wilson, to 'sympathetic' journalists. According to Wright MI5 would use their contacts in the press and the trade unions to spread around the idea that Wilson was considered a security risk. The matter was to be raised in Parliament for 'maximum effect'. However Wright declined to let them see the files on Wilson and the plan was never carried out but Wright does claim it was a 'carbon copy' of the Zinoviev Letter which had helped destabilise the first Labour Government in 1924.

On 22 March 1987 former MI5 officer James Miller claimed that the Ulster Workers Council Strike of 1974 had been promoted by MI5 to help destabilise Wilson's government.

In July 1987, Labour MP, Ken Livingstone used his maiden speech to raise the allegations of a former Army press officer, Colin Wallace, that the Army press office in Northern Ireland had been used in the 1970s as part of a smear campaign, codenamed Clockwork Orange, against Harold Wilson and other British and Irish politicians.

In Defence of the Realm, the first authorised history of MI5, by Christopher Andrew, it was acknowledged that MI5 kept a file on Wilson from 1945, when he became an MP – because communist civil servants claimed that he had similar political sympathies. However, Defence of the Realm claims that there was no conspiracy against Wilson, and repeats the Callaghan government claim that there was no bugging of 10 Downing Street. Doubt was cast on this claim, however, in 2010 when newspaper reports made detailed allegations that the bugging of 10 Downing Street had been omitted from the history for "wider public interest reasons". The government did not issue a denial of the allegations. In 1963 on Harold Macmillan's orders following the Profumo Affair MI5 bugged the cabinet room, the waiting room, and the prime minister's study until the bugs were removed in 1977 on Jim Callaghan's orders. From the records it is unclear if Harold Wilson or Edward Heath knew of the bugging, and no recorded conversations were retained by MI5 so possibly the bugs were never activated. Professor Andrew had previously recorded in the preface of the history that "One significant excision as a result of these requirements (in the chapter on The Wilson Plot) is, I believe, hard to justify", giving credibility to these new allegations.

It is known that MI5 maintained a file on Wilson, repeatedly investigating him over the course of several decades before officially concluding that Wilson had had no relationship with the KGB; nor had it ever found evidence of Soviet penetration of the Labour Party. Wilson claimed he was a staunch anti-Communist.

BackgroundEdit

These included the liberalisation of laws on censorship, divorce, homosexuality, immigration, and abortion; as well as the abolition of capital punishment, which was due in part to the initiatives of backbench MPs who had the support of Roy Jenkins during his time as Home Secretary. Overall, Wilson is seen to have managed a number of difficult political issues with considerable tactical skill, including such potentially divisive issues for his party as the role of public ownership, British membership of the European Community, and the Vietnam War, while continuing to maintain a costly military presence East of Suez.

Once the Cuban Missile Crisis was over, the 1960's were generally a good and happy era of fun and productivity; but leftist\anti-war riots, CND marches, urban moral decline and a growing number of strikes marred the end of the decade. Things were to become very difficult in the mid to late 1970s since industrial unrest of all kinds was common (especially in the power stations and car factories), inflation was rife, London was descending in to all sorts of chaos, the economy faced a "wholesale domestic liquidation" according to Whitehall experts and the USSR was beginning to undermine the UK via the trades unions, Labour Party's Loony left and CND.

From the early days of the Polaris program, American senators and naval officers suggested that the United Kingdom might use Polaris. In 1957 Chief of Naval Operations Arleigh Burke and First Sea Lord, Lord Louis Mountbatten began corresponding on the project. After the cancellations of the Blue Streak and Skybolt missiles in the 1960s, under the 1962 Nassau Agreement that emerged from meetings between Harold Macmillan and John F. Kennedy, the United States would supply Britain with Polaris missiles, launch tubes, ReBs, and the fire-control systems. Britain would make its own warheads and initially proposed to build five ballistic missile submarines, later reduced to four by the incoming Labour government of Harold Wilson, with 16 missiles to be carried on each boat. The Polaris Sales Agreement was signed on April 6, 1963.

The Bicester Military Railway (BMR) was built in 1941 within the Bicester Central Ordnance Depot and was used extensively in the Second World War.

The British Prime Minister Harold Wilson visited the BMR in mid-1965 prior to a government spending review. On his orders it was spared from the railway cutbacks that were left over from Lord Beeching's railway review of the early 1960s.

The Aberfan disaster was a catastrophic collapse of a colliery spoil tip in the Welsh village of Aberfan, near Merthyr Tydfil, on 21 October 1966, which killed 116 children and 28 adults. It was caused by a build-up of water in the accumulated rock and shale, which suddenly started to slide downhill in the form of slurry.

In the summer of 1967, the CIA, the FBI, MI5, MI6, the Australian SIS and New Zealand SIS met in secret in Melbourne, Australia. Mr Golitsin adressed the asembled ignaoryies about his anti-Wilson allegations and Mr Wright presented his doubiose information which he claimed raised the question of the loyalty of Willi Brandt. MI5 was then viseted by James Angleton, then the CIA`s chief of counterintelligence, who claimed he had confirmation from another source, who he claimed could not named, backing up the claims that Harold Wilson actaly was a Soviet agent.

Lord King gave a speech to a group of officers at Sandhurst Amy Officer Collage, in which he urged them to overthrow Harold Wilson in a army coup in 1974, but they refused his offer, beveling he was either mad and\or high on drugs.

MI5 maintained a file on Wilson, repeatedly investigating him over the course of several decades before officially concluding that Wilson had had no relationship with the KGB; nor had it ever found evidence of Soviet penetration of the Labour Party. Wilson claimed he was a staunch anti-Communist.

Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn is said to have told Alec MacDonald, who set up safe houses where Golitsyn could live, that Wilson was a KGB operative and that former Labour Party leader Hugh Gaitskell had been assassinated by the KGB to have the pro-US Gaitskell replaced as party leader by Wilson. Guardian journalist David Leigh, however, claims that Golitsyn was guessing. Christopher Andrew, the official historian for Britain's MI5, has described Golitsyn as an "unreliable conspiracy theorist".

In his controversial memoir Spycatcher (1987), former MI5 officer Peter Wright stated that the head of the CIA's Counterintelligence Division, James Angleton, told him that Wilson was a Soviet agent when Wilson was elected Prime Minister in 1964. Wright said that Angleton said he had heard this from a source (whom he did not name but who was probably Golitsyn). According to Wright, Angleton offered to provide further information on the condition that MI5 guarantee to keep the allegations from "political circles", but the management of MI5 declined to accept restrictions on the use of the information and Angleton told them nothing more.

At the end of the 1960s, Wright wrote, MI5 received information from two Czechoslovakian defectors, Josef Frolík and František August, who had fled to the West, alleging the Labour Party had "almost certainly" been penetrated by the Soviets. The two named a list of Labour MPs and trade unionists as Soviet agents 

MI5 maintained a file on Wilson, repeatedly investigating him over the course of several decades before officially concluding that Wilson had had no relationship with the KGB; nor had it ever found evidence of Soviet penetration of the Labour Party. Wilson claimed he was a staunch anti-Communist.

The strategic coup planEdit

There would be a coup (mooted from 1965 to 1979) lead by Lord Mountbatten, his Scots cronies, the SAS and the Army leadership. The army, SAS, MI5, parts of MI6, parts of the RAF and a smattering of Royal Navy elements would then put down the police and anti-coup factions in the armed forces. As it unfolded the Earl of Cromartie and Lord Cecil King would go on TV to announce who they had appointed as the new 'Government of National Unity and Salvation'. 

Once power was secure 5,000 people in various positions would be purged. The were mostly-

  • 30-40 mostly Labour MPs,
  • Some "Irish polaticians"
  • Several intellectuals,
  • Several hundred journalists and media employees,
  • Unsipathetic academics and clerics
  • The full-time members and main activists of the Communist party and the Socialist Workers Party
  • The directing elements of the 30 or 40 bodies affecting concern and compassion for youth, age, civil liberties, social research and minority grievances.

The plotters thought they could easily intern them on a "lesser ‘Gaelic Archipelago'" off the West Highlands, reportedly code for the Shetland Islands. An army intelligence officer once said that the security services had also convened coup related meetings to determine the location of a possible internment camp for radicals in the Shetland Islands.

A operation codenamed "Clockwork Orange" was tasked with making a false dosser to pseudo-expose Harold Wilson as a Soviet spy. The Ministry of Defense press officer, Collin Wallace, was more than coincidentally imprisoned for manslaughter at the same time as he made cliames he knew about such coup plots.

The Daily Mirror newspaper would publish any damaging anti-Wilson leaks and smear that MI5 wanted aired.

The British government later banned the publication of Peter Wright memoirs in 1986. This was in case it reignited the growing national concern over the rumored coup plot.

The planed coupsEdit

The 1968 plotEdit

In his 1976 memoir Walking on Water, Hugh Cudlipp recounts a meeting he arranged at the request of Cecil King, the head of the International Publishing Corporation (IPC), between King and Lord Mountbatten of Burma. The meeting took place on 8 May 1968. Attending were Mountbatten, King, Cudlipp, and Sir Solly Zuckerman, the Chief Scientific Adviser to the British government.

According to Cudlipp:

"[Cecil] awaited the arrival of Sir Solly and then at once expounded his views on the gravity of the national situation, the urgency for action, and then embarked upon a shopping list of the Prime Minister's shortcomings. He explained that in the crisis he foresaw as being just around the corner, the Government would disintegrate, there would be bloodshed in the streets and the armed forces would be involved. The people would be looking to somebody like Lord Mountbatten as the titular head of a new administration, somebody renowned as a leader of men, who would be capable, backed by the best brains and administrators in the land, to restore public confidence. He ended with a question to Mountbatten--would he agree to be the titular head of a new administration in such circumstances?"

Mountbatten asked for the opinion of Zuckerman, who stated that the plan amounted to treason and left the room. Mountbatten expressed the same opinion, and King and Cudlipp left. King subsequently decided to override the editorial independence of the Daily Mirror and wrote and instructed to be published a front-page article calling on Wilson to be removed by some sort of extra-parliamentary action. The Board of the IPC met and demanded his resignation for this breach of procedure and the damage to the interests of IPC as a public company. He refused, so was dismissed by the Board on 30 May 1968.

In addition to Mountbatten's refusal to participate in King's mooted plot, there is no evidence of any other conspirators. Cudlipp himself appears to see the meeting as an example of extreme egotism on King's part.

A later memoir by Harold Evans, former Times and Sunday Times editor, observed that the Times had egged on King's plans for a coup:

Rees-Mogg's Times backed the Conservative Party in every general election, but it periodically expressed yearnings for a coalition of the right-centre. In the late 1960s it encouraged Cecil King's lunatic notion of a coup against Harold Wilson's Labour Government in favour of a government of business leaders led by Lord Robens. In the autumn election of 1974, it predicted that economic crisis would produce a coalition government of national unity well inside five years and urged one there and then between Conservatives and Liberals.

William Rees-Mogg called for a coalition in a 8 December 1968 Times editorial entitled "The Danger to Britain", a day before King visited the Times office.

A BBC programme The Plot Against Harold Wilson, broadcast in 2006, reported that, in tapes recorded soon after his resignation on health grounds, Wilson stated that for eight months of his premiership he didn't "feel he knew what was going on, fully, in security". Wilson alleged two plots, in the late 1960s and mid-1970s respectively. He said that plans had been hatched to install Lord Mountbatten, Prince Charles's great uncle and mentor, as interim Prime Minister. He also claimed that ex-military leaders had been building up private armies in anticipation of "wholesale domestic liquidation". On a separate track, elements within MI5 had also, the BBC programme reported, spread "black propaganda" that Wilson and Marcia Williams (Wilson's private secretary) were Soviet agents, and that Wilson was an IRA sympathiser, apparently with the intention of helping the Conservatives win the 1974 election.

Labour's preparednessEdit

Labour's defense minister and Foreign Office minister of the 1970s, Lord Chalfont, feared that the military was unreliable and that "fairly senior people" were planning a coup.

The Police, the Sandhurst trained Officer Corps, the Royal Military Police (the Red Caps), most of MI6, the CID, a smattering of RAF elements and the Territorial Army (TA) were known to be on the government's side, while the bulk of the navy, along with the entire SBS and all the submariners wanted to stay neutral. The Parachute Regiment (the Parras), Royal Marines, part of the RAF and the Commandos were yet to decide what to do, but would have likely gone neutral to.  

Lord King gave a speech to a group of officers at Sandhurst Amy Officer Collage, in which he urged them to overthrow Harold Wilson in a army coup, but they refused, beveling he was either mad and\or high on drugs.

The coup's known and aleged membersEdit

Supreme leadersEdit

  1. Lord Louis Mountbatten (de jure)
  2. Lord Cecil King (de facto)

The JuntaEdit

  1. The Earl of Cromartie (the brains behind the coup)
  2. "A group of Scottish aristocrats with SAS connections"
  3. Solly Zuckerman (left at an early stage due to not wanting to commit tresen).
  4. Peter Wright (left at an early stage due to not wanting to commit tresen).

Other affiliates and collaboratorsEdit

  1. Brian Crozier (intelligence gathering)
  2. George Young

Alleged cohortsEdit

  1. James Goldmith
  2. Ross McWhirter
  3. Airey Neave
  4. Lord Lucan (probably, but no confirmed)
  5. David Stirling
  6. John Aspinall
  7. "Senior MI5 figures"
  8. General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte
  9. Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr
  10. Neil Martin MP?
  11. Enoch Powell MP?

The coups's hit listEdit

Once power was secured, 5,000 people in various positions would be purged. The were mostly-

  • 30-40 mostly Labour MPs,
  • Some "Irish politicians"
  • Several intellectuals,
  • Several hundred journalists and media employees,
  • Unsipathetic academics and clerics
  • The full-time members and main activists of the Communist party and the Socialist Workers Party
  • The directing elements of the 30 or 40 bodies affecting concern and compassion for youth, age, civil liberties, social research and minority grievances.

It was largely yet to be drawn up on a name by name basis, but 4 names were known-

  • Tony Ben MP
  • NUM shop steward Arthur Scargil
  • GLC counilor Ken Livingsone
  • Lambeth councilor Ted Knight
Ultimately Harold Wilson was to be executed as soon as the could find him.

Would it have worked?Edit

At first it would have, but a decided military would be flawed from the start. Public protests would be common place due to the mass arrests, killings abolition of rights. Ted Heath did not like Harold Wilson's politics, but would never support a coup since it was illegal to overthrow the government by armed force.

N. Ireland can be assumed lost to local  Loyalist and Republican rebels since its it's own political, cultural and geographical unit. The UVF, UDA, IRA, INLA and RUC would go it alone, since they were all non-aligned and neither the plotters or the PM had never contacted them. 

Scotland was most likely to resist across the Labour voting industrial regions in and about Glasgow, Paisley, Linlithgow, E. Kilbide and Dunfrmline. Edinbourgh was largely pro-government and constitutionally minded. The emergent SNP may have also tried to start trouble in the Western Isles and N. E. Scotland. The Earl of Comatie mad some support in and around Dingwall and Cormaty.

Rural Wales was full of bases, farming village, quarries, small ports and mountains. Breckon was the Arm's major base. The industrial mining southern valleys and Wrexham town were no friend of the Tories, armed coups or far right thugs.

The Industrial northern counties were

The rural northern counties were

London's East End was

Cornwall was

The West Midlands conurbation

Bristol

Related issuesEdit

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F042453-0011, Niedersachsen, Brandt im Wahlkampf

Willi Brandt with Guillaume, 1974.

Michael Foot (KGB spy code-named ‘Comrade Boot’) had some early ties with the Soviets, but he had cut them long ago. This later became a conduit for the communist spy\agent smear plot of the 1990s, which cost Rupert Murdoch a libel action, as was nearly the down fall of the Times under its editor, David Leppard.

MI5 was also behind smears that Ted Heath was gay and going to kinky Wiltshire night clubs during his premiership. Tory MP Captain Henry Kerby was also accused of spreading the rumor that the Tory Prime Minister was gay and had had an affair with a Swedish diplomat.

Lord King lost his job at the The Mirror newspapers due to his increasingly unstable mentality.

Gough Whitlam was sacked as Australian PM in 1975 by the then governor General. It was known as "The Dismissal".

Prime minister Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro was an Italian statesman and politician, and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy party. He served as 38th Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968, and then from 1974 to 1976. He was kidnaped and killed by the Red Brigades (in Italy) to Italy's disgust. It is reported by some journalists back then and modern historians the CIA had either put agents in the organisation, corrupted it's ideals and\or told them he had betrayed the communist cause in order to get him killed. The USA was known to hate him for being too left wing. Knowing America's warped mentality, it could easily come out of the sick heads and they would roll on the floor laughing at it!

Members and a leader of Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo participated in several terrorist attacks. These include the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing, the 1970 Rome-Messina train attack, a grenade attack at a 1974 anti-fascist rally, and the 1974 Italicus Express bombing.

Avanguardia Nazionale (Italia) organized the assassination of Italian magistrate Vittorio Occorsio, employing arms supplied by the CIA via its contacts in Francoist Spain. For the killing Pierluigi Concutelli is currently serving a life sentence in Italy. Avanguardia Nazionale member Mario Ricci participated to the 1978 assassination of Argala, the etarra who had taken part, five years before, in the assassination of Francisco Franco's prime minister, Luis Carrero Blanco.

Willi Brandt resigned as West German chancellor in 1974, after Günter Guillaume, one of his closest aides, was exposed as an agent of the Stasi, the East German secret service in the "Guillaume Affair".

The Watergate scandal led to the discovery of multiple abuses of power by Richard Nixon during the Nixon administration, articles of impeachment, and the resignation of Nixon as President of the United States on August 9, 1974. The scandal also resulted in the indictment of 69 people, with trials or pleas resulting in 25 being found guilty and incarcerated, many of whom were Nixon's top administration officials.  

Robert Muldoon was in trouble following the loss of the East Coast Bays by-election, Muldoon faced an abortive attempt in October–November 1980 to oust him as leader. A faction in the party though Maldoon was to confrontational and becoming a dictator, so they urged his deputy Brian Talboys to launch a leadership bid, known as event known as " The Colonels' Coup" after its originators' caucus — that of Jim Bolger, Jim McLay and Derek Quigley— it took place to replace Muldoon with his more economically liberal deputy, Brian Talboys. Muldoon, who was overseas at the time saw the plotters off with relative ease, especially since Talboys himself was a reluctant draftee. No other serious challenge to Muldoon's leadership occurred in his years as Prime Minister until after the 1984 election.

Pierre Trudeau's first serious test came during the October Crisis of 1970, when a xenophobic, criminally inclined, Marxist group, the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) kidnapped British Trade Consul James Cross at his residence on October 6. After consultations with the provincial premiers, Trudeau agreed to attend a conference called by British Columbia Premier W. A. C. Bennett to attempt to finally patriate the Canadian constitution. As far as can be told, Canada was not seriously involved in either side of the coup plot or even aware of one going on.

AftermathEdit

The Wilson Doctrine was a ban on the tapping of MPs' and Peers' telephones.

In popular cultureEdit

  • The novel and television series A Very British Coup were based on the allegations, using fictional characters.
  • In episode 2.4 of the British television series Life on Mars, characters discuss the possibility of a coup as a result of a Wilson victory in 1974.
  • In Charles Stross's short piece "The Golden Age of Spying" (included in the novel The Jennifer Morgue), Ernst Stavro Blofeld states that his opposition to the British government was based on the fact that Wilson and Callaghan were communist agents.
  • The novella Project Heracles by Stephen Baxter (Analog Science Fiction and Fact, January/February 2012, pp. 120–146.) is based on the premise that the 1974 coup takes place.
  • Anatoliy Golitsyn's allegations of Wilson being a KGB Operative would form the basis of the web-based alternative history story and later novel Agent Lavender: The Flight of Harold Wilson, in which Wilson is revealed to have been a KGB Agent recruited during his University years at Oxford by his tutor, his attempts to flee the country in November 1975 when he's activated and things subsiquently going awry.

Also seeEdit

  1. JFK
  2. Richard Nixon
  3. Harold Wilson
  4. Watergate Scandal
  5. Politically Communist and/or Socialist
  6. "London's Burning" (the political epithet, not the UK TV show)
  7. London's political 'Loony Left'
  8. A political diorama
  9. What is a coup d'état?
  10. Operation Condor
  11. General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte
  12. The 1950 United Kingdom general election
  13. The 1973 Chilean coup d'état
  14. The (Jewish) Rothschild Family conspiracy theory
  15. Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948

SourcesEdit

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  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicester_Military_Railway
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  29. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Brandt
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  37. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Muldoon
  38. http://whitlamdismissal.com/
  39. Leigh, David (1988). The Wilson Plot: How the Spycatchers and Their American Allies Tried to Overthrow the British Government. Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-394-57241-3.
  40. Wright, Peter (1987). Spycatcher. William Heinemann. ISBN 0-85561-098-0.