Whist it may seem strange to connect a metal with the Cold War, but it is non the less connected in it's own unusual way, as do all fuels, phosphates, metals and metal ores. This is why the world obsessed about winning over or capturing many obscure African, Central American, Caribbean and Asian nations.
Oil, coal, gas, gold, silver, platinum,frakable oil, diamonds, uranium and diamonds are more famous, but potash, salt, bauxite, talc, clay, kaolite, quarry stone, oil shales and other minerals are also major national assets.
The hard ans siver-grey chemical element called nickel is classed as a transition metal. Nickel was formaly discovered to be an element by Axel Cronstedt in the 1750s and has been used as far back as circa ~5,000BCE for some Egyptian funeral artifacts.
Nickel has many wide spread uses and is used in many specific and recognizable industrial and consumer products. These products including stainless steel, alnico magnets, coinage, rechargeable batteries, electric guitar strings, nickel jet engine turbine blade super-alloy used in the Turbo-Union RB199 aircraft turbofan jet engine, nickel aluminide, thermostat elements, microphone capsules, coinage, magnets, electroplating potato chip-frying baskets and special alloys. Nickel is used as a binder in the cemented tungsten carbide or hard-metal industry and nickel foam or nickel mesh is used in gas diffusion electrodes for alkaline fuel cells. Parts of the North American X-15's fuselage were made of heat-resistant nickel alloy (Inconel-X 750).
It is also used for plating and as a green tint in glass. Nickel is used as a binder in the cemented tungsten carbide or hard-metal industry and nickel foam or nickel mesh is used in gas diffusion electrodes for alkaline fuel cells. About 6% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. Nickel-plated items are noted for provoking nickel allergy.
By winning over or conquering the local regimes, vital raw material could supply one side or the other leading to many not immediately obvious, but non the less major changes in industry's out put and eventually in to life in general. This is why the world obsessed about winning over or capturing many obscure African, Central American, Caribbean and Asian nations.
An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which often contains 1-2% nickel. Nickel's other important ore minerals include garnierite, and pentlandite. There are also the nickel-manganese crusts and Manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean similarly active zones.
The average nodule has 24% manganese, iron (14%), copper (1%), nickel (1%), cobalt (0.25%) and traces of some other metals like platinum and titanium. The land based ores (manganite, purpurite, rhodonite, rhodochrosite, pyrolusite, mineraloids such as psilomelane and wad) contain 35% to 55% manganese. Those of greatest economic interest contain manganese (27-30%), nickel (1.25-1.5 %), copper (1-1.4 %) and cobalt (0.2-0.25 %). Other constituents include iron (6%), silicon (5%) and aluminium (3%), with lesser amounts of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, titanium and barium, along with hydrogen and oxygen as well as water of crystallization and free water.
Mines and major known reservesEdit
|Mine production and reserves
(blue tint for African, Caribbean and Asian states).
|2012 (metric tons).||2011 (metric tons).||Reserves (metric tons).|
|World total (metric tons, rounded)||2,100,000||1,940,000||75,000,000|
Some lesser deposits also exist in Bolivia, Peru, Chile, the DRC, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Georgia, N. Korea, S. Korea, Malaysia, Jamacia, Guinea, Mongolia, Finland and Greece.
Identified land-based resources averaging 1% nickel or greater contain at least 130 million tons of nickel, plus the nickel-manganese crusts and nodules in the Pacific Oceania similarly active zones.
Milling, casting and refining plantsEdit
The producer countries and many more possess milling, smelting, casting and refining plants.
Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Ontario Canada (which is thought to be of a meteoric (origin), New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia. MMC Norilsk Nickel, headquartered in Moscow, is the principal mining operator in the Norilsk-Talnakh operation. The Eagle mine project is a new nickel mine in Michigan upper peninsula that was being constructed in early 2013 and was scheduled to start work in mid-2014.
2015\2016 prices and abundanceEdit
- Nickel (2015):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 84 parts per million by weight, 30 parts per million by moles
- Abundance solar system: 80 parts per million by weight, 2 parts per million by moles
- 2015 cost, pure: $7.7 per 100g
- 2015 cost, bulk: $1.9 per 100g
- Copper (2015):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 60 parts per million by weight, 19 parts per million by moles
- Abundance solar system: 700 parts per billion by weight, 10 parts per billion by moles
- Cost, pure: $9.76 per 100g
- Cost, bulk: $0.66 per 100g
- Uranium (2015):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 2.7 parts per million by weight, 0.25 parts per million by moles
- Abundance solar system: 1 part per billion by weight, 4 parts per trillion by moles
- 2015 cost, pure: $ N\A per 100g
- 2015 cost, bulk: $9 per 100g
- Gold (2015):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 4 parts per billion by weight, 0.4 parts per billion by moles
- Abundance solar system: 1 part per billion by weight, 10 parts per trillion by moles
- 2015 cost, pure: $5,540 per 100g
- 2015 cost, bulk: $3,800 per 100g
- Manganese (2016):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 0.1% by weight, 360 parts per million by moles
- Abundance solar system: 10 parts per million by weight, 0.2 parts per million by moles
- Cost, pure: $6.5 100g
- Cost, bulk: $0.28 per 100g
- Iron (2016):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 5.6 % weight, 2.1 % by moles
- Abundance solar system: 1000 parts per million by weight, 30 parts per million by moles
- Cost, pure: $7.2 per 100g
- Cost, bulk: $0.02 per 100g
- Titanium (2016):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 0.56% by weight, 0.25% by moles
- Abundance solar system: 4 parts per million by weight, 100 parts per billion by moles
- Cost, pure: $661 per 100g
- Cost, bulk: $ per 100g
- Cobalt (2016):
- Abundance earth’s crust: 25 parts per million by weight, 8 parts per million by moles
- Abundance solar system: 4 parts per million by weight, 0.7 parts per million by moles
- Cost, pure: $21 per 100g
- Cost, bulk: $4.40 per 100g
The Soviet nickel mining town of Nikel (Russian: Ни́кель; Finnish: Kolosjoki) is a town in the Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of Lake Kuets-Yarvi 196 kilometers (122 mi) northwest of Murmansk and 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) from the Norwegian border.
The Population was 12,756 (2010 Census); 16,534 (2002 Census); 21,838 (1989 Census); 18,000 (1973) It was founded by Finland in the early 1930's and taken over by the Russians in the Winter War. It is situated over a massive nickel reserve.
Nikël is a municipality in the Krujë District, Durrës County, western Albania. The population at the 2011 census was 9,518.
Mining and smelting videosEdit
Nickel occurs occasionally free in nature but is mainly found in ores. Its chief ores are pentlandite and pyrrhotite (nickel-iron sulfides), garnierite (nickel-magnesium silicate), millerite (nickel sulfide) and niccolite (nickel arsenic).
Nickel is taken from its ores by roasting and reduction processes which produce a metal of over 75% purity. The Mond process is then used to purify the nickel further.
Nickel mining, smelting and shipment videosEdit
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