Operation Home Defense and earlierEdit
The British PM, Sir Edward 'Ted' Heath, planned out an informal list of possible targets in 1970 and 1971 with the help of a few military leaders and civil experts. A few major industrial and military places had already been listed in the late 1960s by his predecessor, Sir Harold Wilson. The list was largely praised for its strategic savvy, understanding of what the Soviets could do militarily (as much as they knew of it back then), logic and common sense.
The only complaints were that it went a bit soft on Northern Ireland by only destroying Belfast Docks with a relatively small nuke, rather than either using a bigger one or dropping a second small one on Belfast city itself. It was also considered demoralising that there wasn't any public release of the form; this did not happen until the 1990s, and it did not hide the assumed mass nuking of London and Birmingham.
Its official 1971-1972 version Operation Home Defence targets were as follows:
- 24 towns and cities: Glasgow, Birmingham, Liverpool, Cardiff, Manchester, Southampton, Leeds, Newcastle/Gateshead, Bristol, Sheffield, Swansea, Hull, Teeside, Coventry, Wolverhampton, Leicester, Stoke-on-Tent, Belfast, Huddersfield, Sunderland, Gillingham, Rochester, Chatham, Maidstone.
- 14 centres of government: Central London, Cheltenham, Edinburgh, Nottingham, Catterick, York, Preston, Cambridge, Dover, Reading, Salcombe, Brecon, Kidderminster, Armagh.
- 23 RAF bases: Scampton, Waddington, Honington, Wittering, Marham, Coningsby, Lossimouth, Finningley, Bedford, Kinloss, Manston, Wattisham, Cottesmore, Wyton, St Mawgan, Machrihanish, Leeming, Valley, Brawdy, Coltishall, Yeovilton, Leuchars, Binbrook.
- 14 USAF bases: Alconbury, Bentwaters, Woodbridge, Wethersfield, Lakenheath, Upper Heyford, Fairford, Boscombe Down, Pershore, Greenham Common, MIldenhall, Sculthorpe, Cranwell, Lyneham.
- 10 radar stations: Flylingdales, Boulmer, Patrington, Bawdsey, Neatished, Buchan, Saxa Vord, Staxton Wold, Feltwell, Orford Ness.
- 8 military control centres: Northwood, Plymouth, Pitreavie, Fort Southwick, High Wycombe, Ruislip, Bawtry, West Drayton.
- 7 naval communications centres: Rugby, Criggion, Anthorn, Inskip, New Waltham, Londonderry, Thurso.
- 6 naval bases: Faslane, Coulport, Holy Loch, Rosyth, Portsmouth, Devonport.
Later official criticismEdit
Belfast City was now adequately hit, rather than just the docks next to it being hit. It was criticized by some for not hitting atomic plants and major infrastructure, such as Heathrow Airport. Experts also did question the size of some of the nukings at the time.
- Glasgow, Birmingham and Manchester were slated foe 1 or 2 airbursts of up to 5mt. A 5mt blast is 333 time more than the 15kt bomb that blew up Hiroshima in 1945!
- Swansea and Leicester were slated for a 3mt ground burst.
- Central London was not fully listed. It was slated for multiple 1mt air-bursts, but number was not definitively named. There it was also reckon that 2 1mt blast, either on the ground or in the air, would defiantly happen.
- MoD Pig's Bay, Southend, Southend Airport, Tilbury Dock, RAF Woolfox Lodge, RAF Rattlesden, RAF Marham and RAF Warboys were not hit.
In the early 1980s it was thought the UK could be wiped out with use of ~15% of the total Soviet nuclear arsenal. It was also assumed there would be a nuclear, chemical and conventional war across Europe and Turkey.
America chose to deploy in Europe from 1983 up to 464 USAF Gryphon Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCMs) that were based on the US Navy BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile, as well as 108 US Army Pershing II ballistic missiles. Some SLCM and ALCM were also deployed. RAF Molesworth and Greenham Air Base were the recipients of the non submarine launched missiles.
The theoretical OSL attackEdit
Operation Square Leg was a 1980 British government home defence Command Post, MoD command and in field exercise which tested the Transition to War and Home Defence roles of the MoD and Government and a mock nuclear attack on the British Isles which assumed that 131 500Kt to 3Mt nuclear weapons would fall on Britain with a total yield of ~205 megatons with 69 ground bursts and 62 air burst occurring. Whist this was thought to be the most likely outcome some thought it could be worse, so the report also stated that a total strike in excess of 1,000Mt may also occur. This infact was nothing like the Soviet's Seven days to the River Rhine (1979) war plan.
The human toll was estimated at-
- Dead- 29 million (53%)
- Serious injuries 7 million (12%)
- Short-term survivors 19 million (35%).
- Long terms survivors 5 million (9%)
Later official criticismEdit
The exercise was later critiqued because of-
- The exclusive use of megaton yield weapons with an average of 1.5 megatons, when in reality the Soviets warheads would be mixed and mostly in the low hundred kiloton range.
- Some thought an attack totalling 200Mt in yield was too low and it had to be assumed be much higher.
- No targets were chosen in Inner London are thus not attacked, such as the government offices at Whitehall, or RAF Northolt and Heathrow airport.
- Eastbourne, a stretch of empty County Armagh farmland and a small village in County Derry/Londonderry were hit for no obvious reason.
- According to some civil servants, the whole theory was apparently written up by panic-mongers, alarmists, sensationalists, doom-mongers, scare-mongers, warmongers, war-wackys, anti-communist fanatics, political skeptics and political cynics.
The theoretical OHR attackEdit
A combined communications and civil defence exercise planned for September and October 1982.
Operation Exercise Hard Rock assumed a conventional war in Europe lasting 2–3 days was occering, during which the UK was to be attacked with conventional weapons followed up with a limited nuclear exchange with 54 warheads being used against various military targets at the end. After many public protests and CND's criticism of the scenario the exercise was postponed indefinitely.
It was predicted there would be 7.9 million dead and 5 million injured.
Later official criticismEdit
The exercise was later critiqued because of-
- The scenario was ridiculed by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament for it's severity.
- The New Statesman later claimed the targets were picked by political motivated MPs and not professionals working for the Ministry of Defence.
- The nuclear submarine base HMNB Clyde was not hit.
Operation Square Leg was one of many military exercises used to estimate the results of the Soviet nuclear attack in the 1984 BBC drama Threads.
The New Statesman later claimed the targets in Operation Exercise Hard Rock were picked by political motivated MPs and not professionals working for the Ministry of Defence.
Naturally, the people of places like Newbury, which was near the Greenham Air Base were terrified and knew under any scenario, they were to die as end up piles of radioactive ash. This only helped prove CND's case for banning the bomb. People hated living with the concept of mutual assured destruction (MAD) which had become de jure since the Cuban Missile Crisis and de facto since the early 1970s.
In September 1981 after a Welsh group, Women for Life on Earth, arrived at Greenham to protest against the decision of the British government to allow cruise missiles to be based there. The camp stayed in suite until 2000. It became ugly and violent as left winger agitators, members of the British Labour Party and local yobs tried to hijack it and the UK miners' strike of 1984–1985 so as to cause trouble for the British establishment during the early and mid 1980s. The British government then played on the apparent breakdown in public order and portrayed them all unfairly as an anti-establishment rabble and 'leftist' traitors.
250,000 worried people protested against Operation Exercise Hard Rock fearing it would provoke the Soviets and/or was a ruse to hide a covert attack on the USSR. 24 mostly Labour run councils refused to participate largly as part of a Labour party attempt to politicly undermine the government.
The United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in 1987, which led to the removal of all nuclear missiles from the base which was completed by in March 1991, and the 501st TMW inactivated on 4 June 1991. The base closed soon afterwards, became a park in 1997 and a memorial was then erected in 2000. The base was never used to deploy nukes in anger, so was in the end a rather costly waste of time.
RAF Upper Heyford peace camp, was inspired by the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp, peace camp was established on Easter Sunday 1982 and remained for over two years with activities designed to highlight the fact that the base had F-111 aircraft armed with nuclear weapons on fast response. It had earlier had nuclear armed British V-bombers. More than 4,000 people took part over four day protest-come-riot in 1983, with a total of 752 people were arrested.
RAF Upper Heyford closed in 1994 and was partly turned in to a housing instate and retail park in the 1990's. It was used at least for non nuclear wartime reposes.
As with all wars there are limitations to practicality and the risk of over kill, the destruction of what is supposed to be captured and one's own forces and their allies.
|Mission||Target.||Yield.||Nuke.||Dead.||Wounded.||Outer edge of 3rd degree burns.|
|Wipe out most of a major city||Broadway-Lafayette Subway Station, NY.||Russian SS-25 Topol||800kt||1,180,300||1,401,440||60% in to SCX South Kerny Yard, NY.|
|Destroy a major military base and support centre||Chambers Field NAS, Norfolk, VA||French TN80/81||300kt||16,550||46,980||Bud Metheny Baseball Facility, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA|
|Completely and pointlessly annihilate Spokane, Washington, and it's out-lying suberbs like Airway highs.||Unerhill Park, Spokane WA||Chinese Dong Fen 5||5mt||170,330||116,030||25% in to Meadow Wood Golf Course|
|Destroy a major railroad marshalling yard||The SCX South Kerny Yard, NY.||Largest Indian atomic missile||60kt||4,540||54,740||Hudson City Savings Bank, John F. Kennedy Blvd, near the junction with Jewett Ave.|
|Destroy 42nd Street Port Authority Bus Terminal, PABA bus terminal (ACE), Time Sq-42nd St station, Av/w 41st station, The Manhattan Thearter Centrer and The Times Centre.||42nd Street Port Authority Bus Terminal, PABA bus terminal (ACE)||American Davy Crockett battle field nuke.||20 tones||18,590||11,540||Madame Tuasudes NY, but there is a even larger radiation zone with this one and it reached Golder Mayer Sq, NY.|
|Destroy central, Ocala||Chazal Park, Ocala||N. Korean highest A-bomb blast||10kt||2,160||7,260||Uncle Roy's Mobile Home Sales, NW 4th Ave|
I was 10 back then and did not like scaremongering Americans occupying our nation under apparently false pretences in the 1950s, but neither did I like the 1980s anti-establishment rabble who did not understand that we needed to see off the Soviets now relations had broken down. If only we had Glasnost after the Berlin Airlift, not mutually assured bloody mindedness!...
- Germany's Fulda Gap
- Finnish pseudo-neutrality
- Swedish pseudo-neutrality
- Seven days to the River Rhine (1979)
- French nuclear plans and the Force de Dissuasion
- The Swiss National Redoubt (1880-2010)
- North German Plain
- Operation Northern Norway
- The southern Danube route
- Soviet/NATO invasion of Finland
- The week of war policy
- Operation Gladio
- Nicaraguan Civil War
- Korean Demilitarized Zone
- Berlin Wall and Checkpoint Charlie
- Greece, Turkey and southern Italy
- The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
- A nuclear\atomic holocaust or nuclear apocalypse