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F-4B VMFA-314 1968

A U.S. Marine F-4B Phantom II of fighter-attack squadron VMFA-314, the Black Knights, flying over South Vietnam in September 1968.

Flickr - Government Press Office (GPO) - Vietnamese girls and rocking horse outside the absorption center in Afula

Vietnamese girls and rocking horse outside the absorption center in Afula. Photograph: SA'AR YA'ACOV, GPO. 4 February 1979, 13:37:52

MiG 17A Mighty 8th

A North Vietnamese MiG-17 on display at the Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum. Author:Bubba73.

Vietnamese refugees on US carrier, Operation Frequent Wind

South Vietnamese refugees walk across a U.S. Navy vessel. Operation Frequent Wind, the final operation in Saigon, began April 29, 1975. The Navy vessels brought them, under heavy fire, to the Philippines and eventually to Camp Pendleton, Calif.

Philippine refugee processing center bus

Vietnamese refugees Bataan processing center in the early 1970s. They will be settling in a Bataan in the Philippines

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Helicopter Door Gunners in Vietnam - The Shotgun Riders US Army Documentary ca28:38

Helicopter Door Gunners in Vietnam - The Shotgun Riders US Army Documentary ca. 1967-0

This US Army Documentary is about the helicopter door gunners, nicknamed the "Shotgun Riders". The film shows them as they performed some of their various duties in Vietnam, after a rigorous training program. The UH-1 helicopter (still in use by the U.S. Marine Corps, as the UH-1Y helicopter) is still manned as it was in Vietnam, with the gunner firing from the open cabin door. ✚ Watch our "Vietnam War" PLAYLIST: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLaGAbbh1M3Im8vzAvSlZfRXfEnkkP6GK3 ►Facebook: https://facebook.com/TheBestFilmArchives ►Google+: https://plus.google.com/+TheBestFilmArchives ►Twitter: https://twitter.com/BestFilmArch Flugplatz Bremgarten Canadian Forces Base Lahr Berlin Tegel Airport.

StatsEdit

|Box title = Vietnam War |Image file = Coverb_med1-1-.jpg‎ |Image size = 200px |Row 1 title = Date |Row 1 info = 1959-1975 |Row 2 title = Results |Row 2 info = North Vietnamese Victory. Allied American withdrawal/defeat. Invasion of South Vietnam and reunification of Vietnam under the rule of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Communist rule in Laos and rise to power of Cambodia's Khmer Rouge |Row 3 title = Location |Row 3 info = South Eastern Asia |Row 4 title = Territorial |Row 4 info = Dissolution of South Vietnam and reunification of Vietnam

|Box title = Vietnam War |image = File:TAKN.jpg |caption = North Vietnamese T-54 crashing through the gates of the Presidential Palace. |Row 1 title = Date: |Row 1 info = 1 November 1955 - 30 April 1975 |Row 2 title = Location: |Row 2 info = South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos |Row 3 title = Result: |Row 3 info = *Communist Vietnamese victory

  • Withdrawal of American forces from Indochina

|Row 4 title = Territorial changes: |Row 4 info = Republic of Vietnam is dissolved and the majority of its territory is managed by the Republic of South Vietnam and later agreed with Vietnam Democratic Republic of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam}}{{Infobox |Box title = Belligerents |Row 1 title = Anti-Communist forces: |Row 1 info = *South Vietnam

  • United States
  • South Korea
  • Australia
  • Philippines
  • New Zealand
  • Thailand
  • Khmer Republic
  • Kingdom of Laos
  • Republic of China

|Row 2 title = Communist forces: |Row 2 info = *North Vietnam

  • NLF
  • Khmer Rouge
  • Pathet Lao
  • People's Republic of China
  • Soviet Union
  • North Korea

|Row 3 title = Anti-Communist forces supporter: |Row 3 info = *Spain |Row 4 title = Communist forces supporter: |Row 4 info = *Czechoslovakia

  • Cuba

Over viewEdit

Great Planes Douglas A-1 Skyraider Documentary-043:26

Great Planes Douglas A-1 Skyraider Documentary-0

The Douglas A-1 Skyraider was an American single-seat attack aircraft that saw service between the late 1940s and early 1980s. Top speed: 518 km/h Wingspan: 15 m Weight: 4,749 kg Length: 12 m First flight: March 18, 1945 Introduced: 1950 Engine type: Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone.

DIRTY SECRETS of VIETNAM The Aces of Southeast Asia (720p)-044:55

DIRTY SECRETS of VIETNAM The Aces of Southeast Asia (720p)-0

This educational video explains the United States aircraft ground support operations in Southeast Asia, also explaining how jet pilots coordinated to eliminate important ground targets such as bridges, bunkers and vehicles. For more information on the this history subject, please visit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force_in_Thailand FOLLOW ON: https://twitter.com/DocArchive https://www.facebook.com/documentarytube.net FULL Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ueBSG97qkSc&list=PLCIsViWU6sLm3aLtNCNHxNd-nn_UTe4gX.

The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War (1946–54) and was fought between North Vietnam—supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States, Philippines and other anti-communist allies. The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The People's Army of Vietnam, also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units to battle.

As the war continued, the part of the Viet Cong in the fighting decreased as the role of the NVA grew. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. In the course of the war, the U.S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam.

The U.S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a Communist takeover of South Vietnam. This was part of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam. They viewed the conflict as a colonial war, fought initially against forces from France and then the U.S., and later against South Vietnam.

The Vietnam War was a conflict between France then later the US, South Vietnam, and its allies and the Viet Cong, North Vietnam, and its allies. It began as a conflict for Vietnamese independence and resulted in the establishment of a united, communist Vietnam. It was a major engagement in the Cold War that challenged the might and supremacy of the United States as a result of a communist victory.

BackgroundEdit

The Vietnam War is the second phase and is the most intense period of the First Indochina War and conneted to the events of Cold War. This is a war between two sides, one side of the Republic of Vietnam in South Vietnam and the United States, and some other allies such as Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Thailand and the Philippines directly to war and a party the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in North Vietnam by the Vietnam Workers Party (the name of the Communist Party of Vietnam from February 11, 1951 and before December 20, 1976) along with leaders of the communists in South Vietnam and the support from the socialist (communist), especially the Soviet Union and China. This war but called the "Vietnam War" but the fighting spread to the entire Indo-China, embroiled in war both within neighboring countries as Laos and Cambodia at various levels.

It was the second proxy war during the Cold War, the first being 1950–1953 Korean War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), supported by its communist allies, and the US-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).

Throughout the conflict the less equipped and trained Vietcong fought a guerilla war and North Vietnamese soldiers fought a conventional war against US forces in the region, using the jungles of Vietnam to spring deadly ambushes whilst the United States used overwhelming firepower in artillery and aircraft to grind down offensives and potential Vietcong bases. In particular, the iconic Huey helicopters played a decisive role in air-lifting supplies and when later upgraded with rockets and machine guns took part in the heavy ground conflicts.

In 1965 the United States sent in troops to prevent the South Vietnamese government from collapsing. Ultimately, however, the United States failed to achieve its goal, and in 1975 Vietnam was reunified under Communist control; in 1976 it officially became the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. During the conflict, approximately 3 to 4 million Vietnamese on both sides were killed, in addition to another 1.5 to 2 million Lao and Cambodians who were drawn into the war.

Communism IntroducedEdit

In 1956 one of the leading communists in the south, Le Duan, returned to Hanoi to urge the Vietnam Workers' Party to take a firmer stand on the reunification of Vietnam under Communist leadership. But Hanoi (then in a severe economic crisis) hesitated to launch a full-scale military struggle. The northern Communists feared U.S. intervention and believed that conditions in South Vietnam were not yet ripe for a "people's revolution." However, in December 1956, Ho Chi Minh authorized the Viet Minh cadres still in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency. In North Vietnamese political theory, the action was a subset of "political struggle" called "armed propaganda," and consisted mostly of kidnappings and terrorist attacks.

Four hundred government officials were assassinated in 1957 alone, and the violence gradually increased. While the terror was originally aimed at local government officials, it soon broadened to include other symbols of the status quo, such as schoolteachers, health workers, and agricultural officials. One estimate says that by 1958, 20 percent of South Vietnam's village chiefs had been murdered by the insurgents. The insurgency sought to completely destroy government control in South Vietnam's rural villages and replace it with a shadow government. Finally, in January 1959, under pressure from southern cadres who were being targeted by Diem's secret police, the North's Central Committee issued a secret resolution authorizing an "armed struggle." This authorized the southern Viet Minh to begin large-scale operations against the South Vietnamese military. In response, Diem enacted tough new anti-communist laws. However, North Vietnam supplied troops and supplies in earnest, and the infiltration of men and weapons from the north began along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Observing the increasing unpopularity of the Diem regime, on December 12, 1960, Hanoi authorized the creation of the National Liberation Front as a front group for the Vietcong, the communist army in the South.

Successive American administrations, as Robert McNamara and others have noted, overestimated the control that Hanoi had over the NLF. Diem's paranoia, repression, and incompetence progressively angered large segments of the population of South Vietnam. Thus, many maintain that the origins of the anti-government violence were homegrown, rather than inspired by Hanoi. However, as historian Douglas Pike has pointed out, “today, no serious historian would defend the thesis that North Vietnam was not involved in the Vietnam war from the start…. To maintain this thesis today, one would be obliged to deal with the assertions of Northern involvement that have poured out of Hanoi since the end of the war."

United States enters the WarEdit

A-1H VA-152 USS Oriskany 1966

U.S. Navy A-1H Skyraider from Attack Squadron VA-152 over Vietnam in 1966.

F-4B VMFA-314 1968

A U.S. Marine F-4B Phantom II of fighter-attack squadron VMFA-314, the Black Knights, flying over South Vietnam in September 1968.

F-4 Phantom Vs Mig21 - Hell Over Hanoi Documentary - History-045:28

F-4 Phantom Vs Mig21 - Hell Over Hanoi Documentary - History-0

F4 Phantom Vs Mig21 - Hell Over Hanoi Documentary - History Channel HD The Vietnam Battle, also known as the 2nd Indochina Battle, [36] and understood in Vietnam as Resistance Battle Versus The u.s.a or simply the American Battle, was a Cold War-era proxy battle that happened in Vietnam, Laos, and also Cambodia from 1 November 1955 [A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war adhered to the First Indochina War (1946-- 54) and also was fought between North Vietnam-- assisted by the Soviet Union, China and various other communist allies-- as well as the government of South Vietnam-- sustained by the United States and other anti-communist allies. [38] The Viet Cong (likewise referred to as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a South Vietnamese communist common front helped by the North, battled a guerrilla war versus anti-communist forces in the region. The People's Military of Vietnam (additionally known as the North Vietnamese Army) participated in a much more standard battle, at times dedicating large systems to fight. As the battle proceeded, the part of the Viet Cong in the battling minimized as the role of the NVA grew. U.S. and South Vietnamese pressures counted on air supremacy as well as frustrating firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, weapons, as well as airstrikes. In the course of the battle, the U.S. carried out a large-scale critical bombing war North Vietnam, and also in time the North Vietnamese airspace ended up being the most greatly defended in the world. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War More Documentary Films: http://historychannelhd.blogspot.com Be The First To Watch Our Newly Uploaded Videos Just By Subscribing To Our Channel http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZimbEnw_WEQggZE1J_IMVA?sub_confirmation=1.

Lyndon Johnson, as he took over the presidency after the death of Kennedy, did not consider Vietnam a priority and was more concerned with his "Great Society" and progressive social programs. Johnson had a difficult time with American foreign policy makers, specifically Averill Harriman and Dean Acheson, who to Johnson's mind spoke a different language. Particularly heated was the relationship between the new president and national security advisor McGeorge Bundy. Shortly after the assassination of Kennedy, when Bundy called LBJ on the phone, LBJ responded:

"Goddammit, Bundy. I've told you that when I want you I'll call you."

On November 24, 1963, Johnson brought a small group together to talk with Henry Cabot Lodge, and the new president provided his support to help win the Vietnam war. But the pledge came at a time when Vietnam was deteriorating, especially in places like the Mekong Delta, because of the recent coup against Diem.

The military revolutionary council, meeting in lieu of a strong South Vietnamese leader, was made up of 12 members headed by General Minh—whom Stanley Karnow, a journalist on the ground, later recalled as "a model of lethargy." His regime was overthrown in January 1964 by General Nguyen Khanh. Lodge, frustrated by the end of year, cabled home about Minh: "Will he be strong enough to get on top of things?"

On August 2, 1964, the USS Maddox, on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast, fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin. A second attack was reported two days later on the USS Turner Joy and Maddox in the same area. The circumstances of the attack were murky. Lyndon Johnson commented to Undersecretary of State George Ball that "those sailors out there may have been shooting at flying fish." The second attack led to retaliatory air strikes, prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, and gave the president power to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia without declaring war. In the same month, Johnson pledged that he was not "...committing American boys to fighting a war that I think ought to be fought by the boys of Asia to help protect their own land."

In 2005, however, an NSA declassified report revealed that there was no attack on 4 August. It had already been called into question long before this. "The Gulf of Tonkin incident," writes Louise Gerdes, "is an oft-cited example of the way in which Johnson misled the American people to gain support for his foreign policy in Vietnam." George C. Herring argues, however, that McNamara and the Pentagon "did not knowingly lie about the alleged attacks, but they were obviously in a mood to retaliate and they seem to have selected from the evidence available to them those parts that confirmed what they wanted to believe." Rising from 5,000 in 1959, there were now 100,000 guerrilla fighters in 1964. Some have argued that ten soldiers are needed to deal with every one insurgent. Thus, the total number of U.S. troops in 1964 needed to defeat the insurgents may have exceeded the entire strength of the United States Army.

The National Security Council recommended a three-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam. On March 2, 1965, following an attack on a U.S. Marine barracks at Pleiku, Operation Flaming Dart and Operation Rolling Thunder commenced. The bombing campaign, which ultimately lasted three years, was intended to force North Vietnam to cease its support for the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) by threatening to destroy North Vietnam's air defenses and industrial infrastructure. As well, it was aimed at bolstering the morale of the South Vietnamese. Between March 1965 and November 1968, "Rolling Thunder" deluged the north with a million tons of missiles, rockets and bombs. Bombing was not restricted to North Vietnam. Other aerial campaigns, such as Operation Commando Hunt, targeted different parts of the NLF and Vietnam People's Army (VPA) infrastructure. These included the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which ran through Laos and Cambodia. The objective of forcing North Vietnam to stop its support for the NLF, however, was never reached. As one officer noted "this is a political war and it calls for discriminate killing. The best weapon … would be a knife … The worst is an airplane." The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Curtis LeMay, however, had long advocated saturation bombing in Vietnam and wrote of the Communists that "we're going to bomb them back into the Stone Age".

American WithdrawlEdit

Under Paris Peace Accord, between North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Lê Ðức Thọ and U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, and reluctantly signed by South Vietnamese President Thiệu, U.S. military forces withdrew from South Vietnam and prisoners were exchanged. North Vietnam was allowed to continue supplying communist troops in the South, but only to the extent of replacing materials that were consumed. Later that year the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Kissinger and Thọ, but the Vietnamese negotiator declined it saying that a true peace did not yet exist.

The communist leaders had expected that the ceasefire terms would favor their side. But Saigon, bolstered by a surge of U.S. aid received just before the ceasefire went into effect, began to roll back the Vietcong. The communists responded with a new strategy hammered out in a series of meetings in Hanoi in March 1973, according to the memoirs of Trần Văn Trà. As the Vietcong's top commander, Trà participated in several of these meetings. With U.S. bombings suspended, work on the Hochiminh Trail and other logistical structures could proceed unimpeded. Logistics would be upgraded until the North was in a position to launch a massive invasion of the South, projected for the 1975-76 dry season. Trà calculated that this date would be the Hanoi's last opportunity to strike before Saigon's army could be fully trained. A three-thousand-mile long oil pipeline would be built from North Vietnam to Vietcong headquarters in Loc Ninh, about 75 miles northwest of Saigon.

Although McGovern himself was not elected U.S. president, the November 1972 election did return a Democratic majority to both houses of Congress under McGovern's "Come home America" campaign theme. On March 15, 1973, U.S. President Richard Nixon implied that the U.S. would intervene militarily if the communist side violated the ceasefire. Public and congressional reaction to Nixon's trial balloon was unfavorable and in April Nixon appointed Graham Martin as U.S. ambassador to Vietnam. Martin was a second stringer compared to previous U.S. ambassadors and his appointment was an early signal that Washington had given up on Vietnam. During his confirmation hearings in June 1973, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger stated that he would recommend resumption of U.S. bombing in North Vietnam if North Vietnam launched a major offensive against South Vietnam. On June 4, 1973, the U.S. Senate passed the Case-Church Amendment to prohibit such intervention.

The oil price shock of October 1973 caused significant damage to the South Vietnamese economy. The Vietcong resumed offensive operations when dry season began and by January 1974 it had recaptured the territory it lost during the previous dry season. After two clashes that left 55 South Vietnamese soldiers dead, President Thiệu announced on January 4 that the war had restarted and that the Paris Peace Accord was no longer in effect. There had been over 25,000 South Vietnamese casualties during the ceasefire period.

Gerald Ford took over as U.S. president on August 9, 1974 after President Nixon resigned due to the Watergate scandal. At this time, Congress cut financial aid to South Vietnam from $1 billion a year to $700 million. The U.S. midterm elections in 1974 brought in a new Congress dominated by Democrats who were even more determined to confront the president on the war. Congress immediately voted in restrictions on funding and military activities to be phased in through 1975 and to culminate in a total cutoff of funding in 1976.

The success of the 1973-74 dry season offensive inspired Trà to return to Hanoi in October 1974 and plead for a larger offensive in the next dry season. This time, Trà could travel on a drivable highway with regular fueling stops, a vast change from the days was Hochiminh Trail was a dangerous mountain trek. Giáp, the North Vietnamese defense minister, was reluctant to approved Trà's plan. A larger offensive might provoke a U.S. reaction and interfere with the big push planned for 1976. Trà appealed over Giáp's head to party boss Lê Duẩn, who obtained Politburo approval for the operation.

Trà's plan called for a limited offensive from Cambodia into Phuoc Long Province. The strike was designed to solve local logistical problems, gauge the reaction of South Vietnamese forces, and determine whether the U.S. would return to the fray.

On December 13, 1974, North Vietnamese forces attacked Route 14 in Phouc Long Province. Phouc Binh, the provincial capital, fell on January 6, 1975. Ford desperately asked Congress for funds to assist and re-supply the South before it was overrun. Congress refused. The fall of Phouc Binh and the lack of an American response left the South Vietnamese elite demoralised and corruption grew rampant.

The speed of this success led the Politburo to reassess its strategy. It was decided that operations in the Central Highlands would be turned over to General Văn Tiến Dũng and that Pleiku should be seized, if possible. Before he left for the South, Dũng was addressed by Lê Duẩn: "Never have we had military and political conditions so perfect or a strategic advantage as great as we have now."

By 1975 the South Vietnamese Army faced a well-organized, highly determined and well-funded North Vietnam. Much of the North's material and financial support came from the communist bloc. Within South Vietnam, there was increasing chaos. Their abandonment by the American military had compromised an economy dependent on U.S. financial support and the presence of a large number of U.S. troops. South Vietnam suffered from the global recession which followed the Arab oil embargo.

Leaders of the Vietnam WarEdit

Communist forcesEdit

PoliticalEdit

  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Le Duan
  • Ton Duc Thang
  • Pham Van Dong
  • Le Duc Tho

MilitaryEdit

  • Vo Nguyen Giap
  • Hoang Van Thai
  • Van Tien Dung
  • Nguyen Huu An
  • Le Trong Tan
  • Hoang Minh Thao

National Liberation Front of South VietnamEdit

  • Nguyen Huu Tho
  • Nguyen Van Thai
  • Tran Van Ha
  • Tran Do
  • Nguyen Van Linh
  • Vo Chi Cong
  • Huynh Tan Phat


Also seeEdit

Dogfight Series - Gun Kills of Vietnam - Full Documentary44:24

Dogfight Series - Gun Kills of Vietnam - Full Documentary

Dogfight Series-Gun Kills of Vietnam - Full Documentary (including McDonnell Douglas F 4 Phantom II).

  1. Threat construction
  2. Exercise Cobra Gold
  3. Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base
  4. Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base
  5. 1950–1953 Korean War
  6. Cuban Missile Crisis
  7. Kent State shootings
  8. Cold War
  9. Dustoff crews
  10. Sea Wolves
  11. Fragging
  12. Fleshettes
  13. 1953–75 Laotian Civil War
  14. 1967-75 Cambodian Civil War
  15. Beehive anti-personnel round
  16. Directory of all Indochinese wars in the Cold War
  17. Why South Vietnamese women wore cardigans in Israel
  18. Directory of all Indochinese wars in the Cold War
  19. United Nations Security Council Resolution 132
  20. United Nations Security Council Resolution 189
  21. Mjor Cold War wars that killed over 250,000 people

SourcesEdit

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Vietnam
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Dustoff_65
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayan_Emergency
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambodian%E2%80%93Vietnamese_War

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